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Tunnel
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. The central portions of a rapid transit network are usually in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment. Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons, contraband, or people. Special
Special
tunnels, such as wildlife crossings, are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely
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Sewerage
Sewerage
Sewerage
is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers. It encompasses components such as receiving drains, manholes, pumping stations, storm overflows, and screening chambers of the combined sewer or sanitary sewer. Sewerage
Sewerage
ends at the entry to a sewage treatment plant or at the point of discharge into the environment. It is the system of pipes, chambers, manholes, etc. that conveys the sewage or storm water. In American colloquial English "sewer system" is applied more frequently to the large infrastructure of sewers that British speakers more often refer to as "sewerage".Contents1 Components and types 2 Maintenance and rehabilitation 3 Challenges3.1 Water table4 Regulations 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksComponents and types[edit]Map of Seattle sewer districts, 1894The main part of such a system is made up of large pipes (i.e
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Hydroelectric
Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,[1] and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower
Hydropower
is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China
China
is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh
TWh
of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S
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Irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation
is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation
Irrigation
helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation
Irrigation
also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation
Irrigation
systems are also used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining
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Civil Engineering
Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines and railways.[1][2] Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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Military Engineering
Military engineering
Military engineering
is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. Military engineers are also responsible for logistics behind military tactics. Modern military engineering differs from civil engineering. In the 20th and 21st centuries, military engineering also includes other engineering disciplines such as mechanical and electrical engineering techniques.[1] According to NATO, "military engineering is that engineer activity undertaken, regardless of component or service, to shape the physical operating environment. Military engineering
Military engineering
incorporates support to maneuver and to the force as a whole, including military engineering functions such as engineer support to force protection, counter-improvised explosive devices, environmental protection, engineer intelligence and military search
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Mining
Mining
Mining
is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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Aqueduct (bridge)
Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines. The term aqueduct may also be used to refer to the entire watercourse, as well as the bridge.[1] Large navigable aqueducts are used as transport links for boats or ships. Aqueducts must span a crossing at the same level as the watercourses on each end
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London Underground
The London Underground
London Underground
(also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
in the United Kingdom.[6] The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground railway. Opened in 1863, it is now part of the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines; the first line to operate underground electric traction trains, the City & South London Railway in 1890, is now part of the Northern line.[7] The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2016–17 carried 1.379 billion passengers,[3] making it the world's 11th busiest metro system
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National Fire Protection Association
The National Fire Protection Association
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) is a United States trade association, albeit with some international members, that creates and maintains private, copyrighted standards and codes for usage and adoption by local governments.[1] The association was formed in 1896 by a group of insurance firms.[citation needed] Its purpose was to standardize the then-new fire sprinkler systems.[citation needed] It reports to have 65,000 members.[2] Codes and standards[edit] The association's codes and standards are published online [3]
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Diameter
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. It can also be defined as the longest chord of the circle. Both definitions are also valid for the diameter of a sphere. In more modern usage, the length of a diameter is also called the diameter. In this sense one speaks of the diameter rather than a diameter (which refers to the line itself), because all diameters of a circle or sphere have the same length, this being twice the radius r. d = 2 r ⇒ r = d 2 . displaystyle d=2rquad Rightarrow quad r= frac d 2 . For a convex shape in the plane, the diameter is defined to be the largest distance that can be formed between two opposite parallel lines tangent to its boundary, and the width is often defined to be the smallest such distance
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Underpass (song)
"Underpass" is a song by UK artist John Foxx, and was released as a single in January 1980. It was the artist's first solo single release after leaving the band Ultravox and the first single release from the Metamatic album, which was released shortly after. The track remains Foxx's best known song as is generally considered to be one of the most iconic songs of the electronic new wave trend.[citation needed] The song typically features music made using synthesisers and electronic percussion only, and the vocal in the verses is delivered in a cold robotic style by Foxx, with an anthemic single word chorus. The lyrics feature Ballardian themes such as memory, architecture, dystopia and cars. There are no great differences in length or content between the album and single version, although an extended version did emerge years later and was used as the opening track on the Metatronic compilation album in 2010. The single reached no
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Contraband
The word contraband, reported in English since 1529, from Medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item that, relating to its nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold. It is used for goods that by their nature are considered too dangerous or offensive in the eyes of the legislator (termed contraband in se) and forbidden
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Weapon
A weapon, arm, or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living creatures, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defense, and warfare. In broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary or enemy target. While ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs, swords and guns, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological and cyberweapons
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Sanitary Sewer
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called a sewage system or sewerage. Sewage
Sewage
may be treated to control water pollution before discharge to surface waters.[1][2] Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater. Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone. In municipalities served by sanitary sewers, separate storm drains may convey surface runoff directly to surface waters. Sanitary sewers are distinguished from combined sewers, which combine sewage with stormwater runoff in one pipe
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