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Tuareg Languages
TUAREG (English: /ˈtwɑːrɛɡ/ ), also known as Tamasheq (English: /ˈtæməʃɛk/ ), Tamajaq or Tamahaq ( Tifinagh
Tifinagh
: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a Berber language or a family of very closely related Berber languages
Berber languages
and dialects, spoken by the Tuareg Berbers , in large parts of Mali
Mali
, Niger
Niger
, Algeria
Algeria
, Libya
Libya
and Burkina Faso , with a few speakers, the Kinnin, in Chad
Chad

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Kel Ajjer
KEL AJJER (also Kel Azjar, Kel Azjer) is a Tuareg confederation inhabiting western Libya
Libya
and eastern Algeria
Algeria
. Their main stronghold was Ghat , followed by Ubari
Ubari
. The Kel Ajjer speak Tamahaq , or Northern Tuareg . SEE ALSO* Azjar * Kel Adagh * Kel Ahaggar * Kel Ayr * Kel Gres * Aulliminden : Kel Ataram (west) and Kel Dinnik (east)REFERENCES * ^ Biagetti, Stefano (2014-07-19). Ethnoarchaeology of the Kel Tadrart Tuareg: Pastoralism and Resilience in Central Sahara. Springer. p. 26. ISBN 9783319085302 . * ^ Heiss, Johann (2005). Veränderung und Stabilität: Normen und Werte in islamischen Gesellschaften (in German). Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. p. 139. ISBN 9783700135487
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Kel Ahaggar
KEL AHAGGAR (trans: "People of Ahaggar") is a Tuareg confederation inhabiting the Hoggar Mountains
Hoggar Mountains
(Ahaggar mountains) in Algeria
Algeria
. The confederation is believed to have been founded by Tin Hinan , whose monumental tomb is located at Abalessa . The official establishment is dated to around 1750. It has been largely defunct since 1977, when it was terminated by the Algerian government . The language of the confederation is Tahaggart, a dialect of Tamahaq
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Tamasheq Language
TAMASHEQ is a variety of the Tuareg languages . It is spoken by the Tuareg people , principally in the Timbuktu area. There are two divergent dialects: Timbuktu (Tombouctou, Tanaslamt) and Tadghaq (Kidal) in Mali . Tamasheq as spoken in northeastern Burkina Faso is similar. The name Tamasheq is sometimes applied to the Tuareg languages in general. REFERENCES * ^ Tamasheq at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Tamasheq". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
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Adrar Des Ifoghas
The ADRAR DES IFOGHAS (also ADRAR DES IFORAS; Tamasheq : ⴰⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵓⵖⴰⵙ in Tifinagh
Tifinagh
; ADRAR N IFOGHAS; Arabic : أدرار إيفوغاس‎‎ Ifoghas' Mountain) is a massif in located in the Kidal Region of Mali
Mali
, reaching into Algeria . It has an area of around 250,000 square kilometers (97,000 square miles). CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Recent history * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links GEOGRAPHYThe Adrar des Ifoghas
Adrar des Ifoghas
area is characterized by wide, shallow valleys, and is strewn with piles of eroded granite blocks. The massif's valleys open to the Tamesna plain on the east, to the Telemsi fosse on the west, to the western basin of the Azaouak valley on the south, and to the Tanezrouft
Tanezrouft
on the north
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Air Tamajeq Language
AIR TAMAJEQ (TAYIṛT) is a variety of Tamasheq , one of the Tuareg languages . It is spoken by the Tuareg people
Tuareg people
inhabiting the Aïr Mountains in the Agadez Region of Niger
Niger
. Ethnologue lists two dialects: Air (Tayert) and Tanassfarwat (Tamagarast/Tamesgrest). Blench (2006) considers these two varieties to be distinct languages. He lists Ingal and Gofat as dialects of Air/Tayirt, and Azerori as a dialect of Tamesgrest. REFERENCES * ^ Tayart at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tayart Tamajeq". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
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Tamahaq Language
TAMAHAQ (Tahaggart Tamahaq, Tamahaq Tahaggart) is the only known Northern Tuareg language spoken in Algeria
Algeria
, western Libya
Libya
and northern Niger
Niger
. It varies little from the Southern Tuareg Berber languages of the Aïr Mountains
Aïr Mountains
, Azawagh
Azawagh
and Adagh . The differences mostly consist of sound substitutions, such as Tamahaq instead of Tamajaq or Tamasheq
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet , which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet . The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet . Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Karl-G. Prasse
KARL-GOTTFRIED PRASSE (born 14 August 1929 in Hamburg) is a Danish linguist with a focus in the Berber language
Berber language
. He was mainly concerned with the Tuareg- Berber language
Berber language
spoken in Niger
Niger
, Mali
Mali
and southern Algeria
Algeria
. For this language, he has authored dictionaries and complete grammar descriptions. Prasse took lectures in Egyptology
Egyptology
in 1956 and was researching Hamito-Semitic languages and specialized early in Berber and Arabic dialects (Cairo dialect ) with special focus on Tuareg languages
Tuareg languages
. He served as associate professor of Berber and Arab dialects at the University of Copenhagen from 1969 to 1996. The school Ecole touarègue de KG Prasse in Amataltal in Niger
Niger
is named after him
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Arabic Language
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Loanword
A LOANWORD (also LOAN WORD or LOAN-WORD) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation . This is in contrast to cognates , which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques , which involve translation
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Arabic Script
The ARABIC SCRIPT is the writing system used for writing Arabic
Arabic
and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian , Urdu
Urdu
, Azerbaijani , Pashto , Central Kurdish , Luri , dialects of Mandinka , and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish . It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads . The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān , the holy book of Islam
Islam

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Kel Ayr
KEL AYR (also KEL AïR) was a semi-nomadic Tuareg tribal confederation. It ruled an area centered on the Aïr Mountains
Aïr Mountains
(Aïr Massif) in what is today Niger
Niger
. Forming sometime after the 11th century CE, the Kel Ayr were one of the earlier Tuareg groups to arrive in the Aïr. They pushed out the Hausa , who later became identified with Gobir (the Gobirawa) and other states to the south. Kel Ayr controlled the sedentary populations of the trading and farming centers in Assodé , Agadez
Agadez
, In-Gall , Timia and Iferouane
Iferouane
. The Songhai Empire seized Agadez, Ingall, and centers to the south and west in 1500, but lost control before the end of the century
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Tawallammat Tamajaq Language
TAWELLEMMET (Tawəlləmmət) is one of the Tuareg languages
Tuareg languages
in the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. It is usually one of two languages classed within a language called Tamajaq, the other language being Aïr Tamajeq . Tawellemmet is the language of the Iwellemmeden Tuareg . It is spoken in Mali
Mali
, Niger
Niger
and parts of northern Nigeria
Nigeria
by approximately 640,000 people. SEE ALSO * List of African languages REFERENCES * ^ Tawellemmet at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tawallammat Tamajaq". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ "Tamajaq, Tawallammat". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 October 2017
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Tin Sert Language
TETSERRET (Tin Sert) is a Berber language spoken by the Ait-Awari and Kel Eghlal Tuareg tribes of the Akoubounou (Akabinu) commune in Niger . This main speech area is located between Abalak
Abalak
, Akoubounou and Shadwanka . The variant spoken by the Kel Eghlal is called taməsəɣlalt. The Tamasheq equivalent shin-sart / shin-sar / tin-sar is used in some older literature. Popular understanding among some Ait-Awari derives the name tet-serret, and its Tamasheq equivalent shin-sart, from expressions meaning 'the (language) of Sirte '. Tetserret is one of the last Berber languages
Berber languages
to be recognised as distinct. As late as 1981, Bernus treated Tetserret as a dialect of Tuareg, and some early sources even confused it with the Northern Songhay languages
Songhay languages

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Ghat Language
TAMAHAQ (Tahaggart Tamahaq, Tamahaq Tahaggart) is the only known Northern Tuareg language , spoken in Algeria
Algeria
, western Libya
Libya
and northern Niger
Niger
. It varies little from the Southern Tuareg Berber languages of the Aïr Mountains
Aïr Mountains
, Azawagh
Azawagh
and Adagh . The differences mostly consist of sound substitutions, such as Tamahaq instead of Tamajaq or Tamasheq
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