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Tuareg Languages
Tuareg (English: /ˈtwɑːrɛɡ/), also known as Tamasheq (English: /ˈtæməʃɛk/), Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages
Berber languages
and dialects. It is spoken by the Tuareg Berbers
Berbers
in large parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya
Libya
and Burkina Faso, with a few speakers, the Kinnin, in Chad.[2]Contents1 Description 2 Subclassification 3 Orthography 4 Phonology4.1 Vowels 4.2 Consonants 4.3 Phonotactics 4.4 Suprasegmentals 4.5 Dialectal differences5 Grammar5.1 Syntax 5.2 Morphology6 Further reading6.1 Bibliographies 6.2 Dictionaries 6.3 Grammars 6.4 Texts 6.5 Linguistic topics7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksDescription[edit] Tuareg dialects belong to the South Berber group and are commonly regarded as a single language (as for instance by Karl-G
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Velar Consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels.[1] They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.[citation needed][by whom?] Many languages also have labialized velars, such as [kʷ], in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial–velar consonants, which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as [k͡p]
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Sahara
The Sahara
Sahara
(Arabic: الصحراء الكبرى‎, aṣ-ṣaḥrāʼ al-kubrá, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica
Antarctica
and the Arctic.[1] Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres (3,600,000 sq mi)[2] is comparable to the area of China
China
or the United States. The name 'Sahara' is derived from dialectal Arabic word for "desert", ṣaḥra (صحرا /ˈsˤaħra/).[3][4][5][6] The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
coast, the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
in Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
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Greek Alphabet
The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC.[3][4] It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[6] Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega
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Kel Ahaggar
Kel Ahaggar
Kel Ahaggar
(Berber: ⴾⵍ ⵂⴴⵔ) (trans: "People of Ahaggar") is a Tuareg confederation inhabiting the Hoggar Mountains
Hoggar Mountains
(Ahaggar mountains) in Algeria. The confederation is believed to have been founded by the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinan, whose monumental tomb is located at Abalessa. The official establishment is dated to around 1750
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Adrar Des Ifoghas
The Adrar des Ifoghas
Adrar des Ifoghas
(also Adrar des Iforas; Tamasheq: ⴰⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵓⵖⴰⵙ in Tifinagh; Adrar n Ifoghas; Arabic: أدرار إيفوغاس‎ Ifoghas' Mountain) is a massif in located in the Kidal Region
Kidal Region
of Mali, reaching into Algeria. It has an area of around 250,000 square kilometers (97,000 square miles).Contents1 Geography 2 Recent history 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksGeography[edit] The Adrar des Ifoghas
Adrar des Ifoghas
area is characterized by wide, shallow valleys, and is strewn with piles of eroded granite blocks. The massif's valleys open to the Tamesna plain on the east, to the Telemsi fosse on the west, to the western basin of the Azaouak valley on the south, and to the Tanezrouft
Tanezrouft
on the north
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Kel Ayr
Kel Ayr (also Kel Aïr) was a semi-nomadic Tuareg tribal confederation. It ruled an area centered on the Aïr Mountains (Aïr Massif) in what is today Niger. Forming sometime after the 11th century CE, the Kel Ayr were one of the earlier Tuareg groups to arrive in the Aïr. They pushed out the Hausa, who later became identified with Gobir (the Gobirawa) and other states to the south. Kel Ayr controlled the sedentary populations of the trading and farming centers in Assodé, Agadez, In-Gall, Timia and Iferouane. The Songhai Empire seized Agadez, Ingall, and centers to the south and west in 1500, but lost control before the end of the century. Along with the Kel Gres, Tesen and Issandalan confederations, the Kel Ayr controlled the region and helped found the Sultanate in Agadez. In 1740 the large Kel Owey destroyed the town of Assodé, sacked Agadez, placed the Sultanate of Agadez under their control, and dispersed the Kel Ayer to the south and west
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Roger Blench
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist. He has an M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and remains based in Cambridge, England. He actively researches and publishes, although he works as a private consultant rather than in academia. A noted expert in African linguistics,[1] Blench's main area of linguistic interest is the Niger–Congo language family
Niger–Congo language family
although he has also researched the Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
and Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic
families. He has also written about other language families and endangered languages. Additionally, Blench has published extensively on the relationship between linguistics and archaeology, principally in Africa, but more recently also in East Asia
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Western Berber Languages
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects
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Rock Art
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms: petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, pictographs, which are painted onto the surface, and earth figures, formed on the ground. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic
Upper Palaeolithic
period, having been found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa
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Tin Hinan Tomb
The Tin Hinan Tomb (French: Tombeau de Tin Hinan) is a monumental tomb located at Abalessa in the Sahara, in the Hoggar Mountains of southern Algeria.[2] The sepulchre was built for the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinan, an ancient Queen of the Hoggar (Ahaggar). The tomb is believed to have been constructed over a Roman fortification, which was built by the proconsul Lucius Cornelius Balbus the Younger during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus (r. 63 BC–14 AD).Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 Bibliography 5 See alsoHistory[edit] According to Henri Lhote, the Tin Hinan sepulchre is different from the surrounding tombs in southern Algeria, and is more typical of the architecture used by the Roman legionaries to create their fortifications in desert areas
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Tin Hinan
Tin Hinan
Tin Hinan
was a 4th-century Tuareg queen and matriarch. Her monumental tomb is located in the Sahara, at Abalessa
Abalessa
in the Hoggar
Hoggar
region of Algeria.Contents1 Queen of the Hoggar 2 Notes 3 Bibliography 4 See alsoQueen of the Hoggar[edit] Tin Hinan
Tin Hinan
is sometimes referred to as "Queen of the Hoggar", and by the Tuareg as Tamenukalt which also means "leader" or "queen". The name means literally "she of the tents", but may be metaphorically translated as "mother of the tribe" (or "of us all") or even "queen of the camp" (the "camp" maybe referring to the group of tombs which surround hers). Not far from the oasis of Abalessa, Algeria, about 1,000 miles south of Algiers, a rounded hill rises about 125 ft above the junction of two wadis. The Tomb of Tin Hinan
Tin Hinan
is on the summit
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Inscription
Epigraphy
Epigraphy
is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription
Behistun inscription
is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances. It is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document
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Gaf
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی ‬Perso-Arabic scriptTransliteration Diacritics Hamza Numerals Numerationv t eArabic alphabetArabic scriptHistory Transliteration Diacritics Hamza Numerals Numerationv t eGaf, or gāf, may be the name of four different Perso-Arabic letters, all representing /ɡ/. They are all forms of the letter kāf, with additional diacritics, such as dots and lines
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