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Tsangpa
Tsangpa (Tibetan: གཙང་པWylie: gTsang pa) was a dynasty that dominated large parts of Tibet from 1565 to 1642. It was the last Tibetan royal dynasty to rule in own name
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Shigatse
Shigatse, officially known as Xigazê (Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé Nepali: सिगात्से), is a prefecture-level city of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, with an area of 182,000 km2---> (70,271 sq mi)
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Altan Khan
Altan Khan of the Tümed (1507–1582; Mongolian: Алтан хан; Chinese: 阿爾坦汗), whose given name was Anda (ᠠᠨᠳᠠ in Mongolian; 俺答 in Chinese), was the leader of the Tümed Mongols, Shunyi Wang (Prince of Shunyi, Chinese: 顺义王) of Ming dynasty China, and de facto ruler of the Right Wing, or western tribes, of the Mongols. He was the grandson of Dayan Khan (1464–1543), a descendant of Kublai Khan (1215–1294), who had managed to unite a tribal league between the Khalkha Mongols in the north and the Chahars (Tsakhars) to the south
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Wylie Transliteration
The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of Turrell V. Wylie, who described the scheme in an article, A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription, published in 1959. It has subsequently become a standard transliteration scheme in Tibetan studies, especially in the United States. Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to accurately reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ widely as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation. Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly
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Karma Kagyu
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Shamarpa
The Shamarpa (Tibetan: ཞྭ་དམར་པ་Wylie: zhwa dmar pa; literally, "Person (i.e. Holder) of the Red Crown"), also known as Shamar Rinpoche, or more formally Künzig Shamar Rinpoche, is a lineage holder of the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism and is regarded to be the mind manifestation of Amitābha. He is traditionally associated with Yangpachen Monastery near Lhasa. The first Shamarpa, Drakpa Senggé (Wylie: grags pa seng+ge, 1283–1349), was the principal disciple of Rangjung Dorje, 3rd Karmapa Lama. Rangjung Dorje gave this disciple a ruby-red crown and the title "Shamarpa", establishing the second line of reincarnate lamas in Tibetan Buddhism, the Karmapa being the first. The Shamarpa is often referred to as the "Red Hat Karmapa", especially in early Kagyu texts.

Wangchuk Dorje, 9th Karmapa Lama
Wangchuk Dorje (1556–1603) was the ninth Gyalwa Karmapa, head of the Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism. Wangchuk Dorje was born in Treshod, Kham. According to legend, he said after being born: "I am Karmapa." Other sources say that soon after his birth he sat cross-legged for three days and declared he was the Karmapa. He received his education from Shamar Köncho Yenlak, the fifth Shamarpa, in a nomadic camp which traveled through Tibet but also passed through present day Mongolia and Bhutan. During his travels many monasteries were founded. Wangchuk Dorje also wrote many classic Buddhist texts, many of which are still being taught today.Biography of the 9th Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje was not only a spiritual leader, but also a mediator in conflicts
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3rd Dalai Lama
Sonam Gyatso (Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་Wylie: bsod nams rgya mtsho, ZYPY: Soinam Gyaco) (1543–1588) was the first to be named Dalai Lama, although the title was retrospectively given to his two predecessors. He was born near Lhasa in 1543 and was recognised as the reincarnation of Gendun Gyatso and subsequently enthroned at Drepung Monastery by Panchen Sonam Dragpa, who became his tutor. Panchen Sonam Dragpa was the 15th Ganden Tripa and his texts still serve as the core curriculum for many Gelugpa monasteries. The third Dalai Lama studied at Drepung Monastery and became its abbot
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty (/mɪŋ/) was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren About this sound 
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China
China (Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; literally: 'Central State' or 'Middle Kingdom'), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.428 billion in 2017
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Drepung Monastery
Drepung Monastery (Wylie: 'bras spungs dgon pa, "Rice Heap Monastery"), located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelug university gompas (monasteries) of Tibet. The other two are Ganden Monastery and Sera Monastery. Drepung is the largest of all Tibetan monasteries and is located on the Gambo Utse mountain, five kilometers from the western suburb of Lhasa. Freddie Spencer Chapman reported, after his 1936-37 trip to Tibet, that Drepung was at that time the largest monastery in the world, and housed 7,700 monks, "but sometimes as many as 10,000 monks." Since the 1950s, Drepung Monastery, along with its peers Ganden and Sera, have lost much of their independence and spiritual credibility in the eyes of Tibetans since they operate under the close watch of the Chinese security services. All three were reestablished in exile in the 1950s in Karnataka state in south India
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Sera Monastery
Sera Monastery (Tibetan: སེ་ར་དགོན་པWylie: se ra dgon pa "Wild Roses Monastery"; Chinese: 色拉寺; pinyin: Sèlā Sì) is one of the "great three" Gelug university monasteries of Tibet, located 1.25 miles (2.01 km) north of Lhasa and about 5 km (3.1 mi) north of the Jokhang. The other two are Ganden Monastery and Drepung Monastery
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Monarch
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the Sovereign state">state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule
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Theocracy
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition:
1. a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god. 1.1. the commonwealth of Israel from the time of Moses until the election of Saul as King.
An ecclesiocracy is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was also the temporal ruler. Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two 'arms'—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy
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