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Triple Point
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.[1] For example, the triple point of mercury occurs at a temperature of −38.83440 °C and a pressure of 0.2 mPa. In addition to the triple point for solid, liquid, and gas phases, a triple point may involve more than one solid phase, for substances with multiple polymorphs. Helium-4
Helium-4
is a special case that presents a triple point involving two different fluid phases (lambda point).[1] The triple point of water is used to define the kelvin, the base unit of thermodynamic temperature in the International System of Units (SI).[2] The value of the triple point of water is fixed by definition, rather than measured
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Tripoint
A tripoint, trijunction,[1] triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 international tripoints.[2] Nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. When on dry land, the exact tripoints are usually indicated by markers or pillars, and occasionally by larger monuments. Usually, the more neighbours a country has, the more international tripoints that country has. China
China
with 16 tripoints and Russia
Russia
with 11 to 14 lead the list of states by number of tripoints. Within Europe, landlocked Austria
Austria
has nine tripoints, among them two with Switzerland and Liechtenstein
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James Thomson (engineer)
Prof James Thomson FRS FRSE
FRSE
LLD (16 February 1822 – 8 May 1892) was an engineer and physicist whose reputation is substantial though it is overshadowed by that of his younger brother William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Publications 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Belfast, much of his youth was spent in Glasgow. His father James was professor of mathematics at the University of Glasgow
Glasgow
from 1832 onward and his younger brother William was to become Baron Kelvin. James attended Glasgow
Glasgow
University from a young age and graduated (1839) with high honors in his late teens. After graduation, he served brief apprenticeships with practical engineers in several domains; and then gave a considerable amount of his time to theoretical and mathematical engineering studies, often in collaboration with his brother, during his twenties in Glasgow
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Atmosphere (unit)
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa (1.01325 bar). It is sometimes used as a reference or standard pressure.Contents1 History 2 Pressure
Pressure
units and equivalencies 3 Other applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] It was originally defined as the pressure exerted by 760 mm of mercury at 0 °C and standard gravity (g = 9.80665 m/s2).[1] It was used as a reference condition for physical and chemical properties, and was implicit in the definition of the Centigrade (later Celsius) scale of temperature by defining 100 °C as being the boiling point of water at this pressure
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NIST
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
Technology
(NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
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National Bureau Of Standards
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
Technology
(NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
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Isotope
Isotopes
Isotopes
are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons
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Calibration
Calibration
Calibration
in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler. The outcome of the comparison can result in no significant error being noted on the device under test, a significant error being noted but no adjustment made, or an adjustment made to correct the error to an acceptable level
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Ice II
Ice
Ice
II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with a highly-ordered structure. It is formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 198 K at 300 MPa
MPa
or by decompressing ice V. When heated it undergoes transformation to ice III.[1] Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih, (in the Bridgman nomenclature). Different types of ice, from ice II to ice XVI, have been created in the laboratory at different temperatures and pressures. It is thought that the cores of icy moons like Jupiter's Ganymede may be made of ice II. History[edit] The properties of ice II were first described and recorded by Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann in 1900 during his experiments with ice under high pressure and low temperatures
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Ice III
Ice
Ice
III is a form of solid matter which consists of tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. It is the least dense of the high-pressure water phases, with a density of 1160 kg/m3 (at 350 MPa). The proton-ordered form of ice III is ice IX. Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih, (in the Bridgman nomenclature). Different types of ice, from ice II to ice XVI, have been created in the laboratory at different temperatures and pressures. See also[edit]Ice, for other crystalline forms of iceReferences[edit]Chaplin, Martin (2007-11-11). "Ice-three and ice-nine structures". Water
Water
Structure and Science
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Ice Ih
Ice
Ice
Ih (pronounced: ice one h, also known as ice-phase-one) is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water.[1] Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic that is occasionally present in the upper atmosphere. Ice
Ice
Ih exhibits many peculiar properties that are relevant to the existence of life and regulation of global climate.[2] The crystal structure is characterized by the oxygen atoms forming hexagonal symmetry with near tetrahedral bonding angles
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Laser Altimetry
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. Differences in laser return times and wavelengths can then be used to make digital 3-D representations of the target. The name lidar, now used as an acronym of light detection and ranging[1] (sometimes light imaging, detection, and ranging), was originally a portmanteau of light and radar.[2][3] Lidar sometimes is called laser scanning and 3-D scanning, with terrestrial, airborne, and mobile applications. Lidar is commonly used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geodesy, geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, atmospheric physics,[4] laser guidance, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry
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Mariner 9
Mariner 9
Mariner 9
(Mariner Mars
Mars
'71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA
NASA
space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars
Mars
and was part of the Mariner program. Mariner 9
Mariner 9
was launched toward Mars
Mars
on May 30, 1971[1][2] from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year,[1][2] becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet[3] – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars
Mars
2 and Mars
Mars
3, which both arrived within a month
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Liquefaction
In materials science, liquefaction[1] is a process that generates a liquid from a solid or a gas[2] or that generates a non-liquid phase which behaves in accordance with fluid dynamics.[3] It occurs both naturally and artificially
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Outer Space
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth
Earth
and between celestial bodies. Outer space
Outer space
is not completely empty—it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays
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Water Vapor
Water
Water
vapor, water vapour or aqueous vapor is the gaseous phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water
Water
vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Unlike other forms of water, water vapor is invisible.[4] Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation. It is lighter than air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds. Being a component of Earth's hydrosphere and hydrologic cycle, it is particularly abundant in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
where it is also a potent greenhouse gas along with other gases such as carbon dioxide and methane
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