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Triple DES
In cryptography, Triple DES (3DES), officially the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), is a symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the DES cipher algorithm three times to each data block. While the government and industry standards abbreviate the algorithm's name as TDES (Triple DES) and TDEA (Triple Data Encryption Algorithm),[1] RFC 1851 called it 3DES from the time it first promulgated the idea, and this namesake has since come into wide use by most vendors, users, and cryptographers.[2][3][4][5]Contents1 Standards 2 Algorithm 3 Keying options 4 Encryption of more than one block 5 Security 6 Usage 7 See also 8 References and notes 9 External linksStandards[edit] The Triple Data Encryption Algorithm is variously defined in several standards documents:RFC 1851, The
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CiteSeerX
CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science. Many[who?] consider it to be the first academic paper search engine and the first automated citation indexing system. CiteSeer holds a United States patent # 6289342, titled "Autonomous citation indexing and literature browsing using citation context," granted on September 11, 2001. Stephen R. Lawrence, C. Lee Giles, Kurt D. Bollacker are the inventors of this patent assigned to NEC Laboratories America, Inc. This patent was filed on May 20, 1998, which has its roots (Priority) to January 05, 1998. A continuation patent was also granted to the same inventors and also assigned to NEC Labs on this invention i.e. US Patent # 6738780 granted on May 18, 2004 and was filed on May 16, 2001
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Electronic Payment
An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking. Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online retail transactions were made with this payment type.[1] Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting credit and debit cards due to their widespread use
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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CRC Press
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books. Many of their books relate to engineering, science and mathematics. Their scope also includes books on business, forensics and information technology. CRC Press is now a division of Taylor & Francis, itself a subsidiary of Informa.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The CRC Press was founded as the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) in 1903 by brothers Arthur, Leo and Emanuel Friedman in Cleveland, Ohio, based on an earlier enterprise by Arthur, who had begun selling rubber laboratory aprons in 1900.[2][3] The company gradually expanded to include sales of laboratory equipment to chemists
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Federal Register
The Federal Register
Federal Register
(FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.[1] It is published daily, except on federal holidays. The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are ultimately reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), which is updated annually. The Federal Register
Federal Register
is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register (within the National Archives and Records Administration) and is printed by the Government Publishing Office
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Chosen-plaintext Attack
A chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker can obtain the ciphertexts for arbitrary plaintexts.[1] The goal of the attack is to gain information that reduces the security of the encryption scheme.Contents1 Introduction 2 Different Forms 3 General method of an attack 4 Examples4.1 Caesar cipher 4.2 One-time pads5 In practice 6 Relation to other attacks 7 See also 8 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] In a chosen-plaintext attack the adversary can (possibly adaptively) ask for the ciphertexts of arbitrary plaintext messages. This is formalized by allowing the adversary to interact with an encryption oracle, viewed as a black box. The attacker’s goal is to reveal all or part of the secret encryption key. It may seem infeasible in practice that an attacker could obtain ciphertexts for given plaintexts
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Bits Of Security
In cryptography, security level is a measure of the strength that a cryptographic primitive — such as a cipher or hash function — achieves. Security level is usually expressed in "bits", where n-bit security means that the attacker would have to perform 2n operations to break it,[1] but other methods have been proposed that more closely model the costs for an attacker.[2] This allows for convenient comparison between algorithms and is useful when combining multiple primitives in a hybrid cryptosystem, so there is no clear weakest link
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United States Department Of Commerce
The United States Department of Commerce
United States Department of Commerce
is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, and helping to set industrial standards. This organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans.[3] The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building
Herbert C

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Parity Bit
A parity bit, or check bit, is a bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd. Parity bits are used as the simplest form of error detecting code. There are two variants of parity bits: even parity bit and odd parity bit. In the case of even parity, for a given set of bits, the occurrences of bits whose value is 1 is counted. If that count is odd, the parity bit value is set to 1, making the total count of occurrences of 1s in the whole set (including the parity bit) an even number. If the count of 1s in a given set of bits is already even, the parity bit's value is 0. In the case of odd parity, the coding is reversed. For a given set of bits, if the count of bits with a value of 1 is even, the parity bit value is set to 1 making the total count of 1s in the whole set (including the parity bit) an odd number
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Microsoft OneNote
Microsoft
Microsoft
OneNote is a computer program for free-form information gathering and multi-user collaboration. It gathers users' notes (handwritten or typed), drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over the Internet or a network. OneNote is available as a part of Microsoft Office and Windows
Windows
10
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Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft
Microsoft
Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft
Microsoft
Office suite. Although often used mainly as an email application, it also includes a calendar, task manager, contact manager, note taking, journal, and web browsing. It can be used as a stand-alone application, or can work with Microsoft
Microsoft
Exchange Server and Microsoft
Microsoft
SharePoint
SharePoint
Server for multiple users in an organization, such as shared mailboxes and calendars, Exchange public folders, SharePoint
SharePoint
lists, and meeting schedules. Microsoft
Microsoft
has also released mobile applications for most mobile platforms, including iOS and Android
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System Center Configuration Manager
System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM, also known as ConfigMgr),[1] formerly Systems Management Server (SMS)[2] is a systems management software product developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
for managing large groups of computers running Windows NT, Windows Embedded, macOS (OS X), Linux
Linux
or UNIX, as well as Windows Phone, Symbian, iOS and Android mobile operating systems.[3] Configuration Manager provides remote control, patch management, software distribution, operating system deployment, network access protection and hardware and software inventory.Contents1 History 2 Components 3 Requirements 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] System Center Configuration Manager has evolved since Microsoft originally released it as "Systems Management Server" in 1994. Significant releases include:Systems Management Server 1.0, released in 1994 along with Windows NT Server 3.5
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Firefox
Mozilla
Mozilla
Firefox
Firefox
(or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source[20] web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation
Mozilla Foundation
and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox
Firefox
is available for Windows, macOS, Linux, and BSD[10][11] operating systems. Its sibling, Firefox
Firefox
for Android, is available for Android
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Mozilla Thunderbird
Mozilla
Mozilla
Thunderbird is a free and open-source[11] cross-platform email client, news client, RSS
RSS
and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. The project strategy was modeled after that of the Mozilla Firefox
Firefox
web browser. It is installed by default on Ubuntu desktop systems. On December 7, 2004, version 1.0 was released, and received more than 500,000 downloads in its first three days of release, and 1,000,000 in 10 days.[12][13] On July 6, 2012, Mozilla
Mozilla
announced the company was dropping the priority of Thunderbird development because the continuous effort to extend Thunderbird's feature set was mostly fruitless
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