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Triglycerides
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).[1] Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat.[2] They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.[3] There are many different types of triglyceride, with the main division between saturated and unsaturated types. Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen — all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied. These have a higher melting point and are more likely to be solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms, reducing the number of places where hydrogen atoms can bond to carbon atoms
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Joules
The joule (/dʒuːl/); (symbol: J), is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.[1] It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work done on) an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N⋅m). It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
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Pancreatic Lipase
Triglyceride
Triglyceride
lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) are a family of lipolytic enzymes that hydrolyse ester linkages of triglycerides.[1] Lipases are widely distributed in animals, plants and prokaryotes. At least three tissue-specific isozymes exist in higher vertebrates, pancreatic, hepatic and gastric/lingual. These lipases are closely related to each other and to lipoprotein lipase (EC 3.1.1.34), which hydrolyses triglycerides of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL).[2] The most conserved region in all these proteins is centred on a serine residue which has been shown[3] to participate, with an histidine and an aspartic acid residue, in a charge relay system
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Linoleic Acid
Linoleic acid
Linoleic acid
(LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration. A shorthand notation like "18:2 (n-6)" or "18:2 cis-9,12" may be used in literature.[3] It typically occurs in nature as a triglyceride ester; free fatty acids are typically low in foods.[4] Linoleic acid
Linoleic acid
belongs to one of the two families of essential fatty acids, which means that the human body cannot synthesize it from other food components.[5] The word "linoleic" derived from the Greek word linon (flax)
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Stearic Acid
Stearic acid
Stearic acid
(/ˈstɪərɪk/ STEER-ik, /ˈstɪ.æ.rɪk/ stee-ARR-ik) is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid and its chemical formula is C17H35CO2H. Its name comes from the Greek word στέαρ "stéar", which means tallow. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. As its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid.[9] The triglyceride derived from three molecules of stearic acid is called stearin.Contents1 Production 2 Uses2.1 Soaps, cosmetics, detergents 2.2 Lubricants, softening and release agents 2.3 Niche uses3 Metabolism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksProduction[edit] Stearic acid
Stearic acid
is obtained from fats and oils by the saponification of the triglycerides using hot water (about 100 °C)
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Palmitic Acid
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.[9] Its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)14COOH, and its C:D is 16:0. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from the fruit of oil palms (palm oil). Palmitic acid
Palmitic acid
can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and dairy products. Palmitate is the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic pH (7.4). Aluminium
Aluminium
salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II
World War II
to produce napalm
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Calorie
A calorie is a unit of energy. Various definitions exist but fall into two broad categories. The first, the small calorie, or gram calorie (symbol: cal), is defined as the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
Celsius
at a pressure of one atmosphere.[1] The second is the large calorie or kilogram calorie (symbol: Cal), also known as the food calorie and similar names,[2] is defined in terms of the kilogram rather than the gram. It is equal to 7003100000000000000♠1000 small calories or 1 kilocalorie (symbol: kcal).[1] Although these units relate to the metric system, all of them have been considered obsolete in science since the adoption of the SI system.[3] The unit of energy in the International System of Units
International System of Units
is the joule. One small calorie is approximately 4.2 joules (so one large calorie is about 4.2 kilojoules)
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Polymorphism (materials Science)
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. Polymorphism can potentially be found in any crystalline material including polymers, minerals, and metals, and is related to allotropy, which refers to chemical elements. The complete morphology of a material is described by polymorphism and other variables such as crystal habit, amorphous fraction or crystallographic defects. Polymorphism is relevant to the fields of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, pigments, dyestuffs, foods, and explosives. When polymorphism exists as a result of a difference in crystal packing, it is called packing polymorphism. Polymorphism can also result from the existence of different conformers of the same molecule in conformational polymorphism. In pseudopolymorphism the different crystal types are the result of hydration or solvation
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Chirality (chemistry)
Chirality
Chirality
/kaɪˈrælɪti/ is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superimposable on its mirror image. The presence of an asymmetric carbon center is one of several structural features that induce chirality in organic and inorganic molecules.[1][2][3][4] The term chirality is derived from the Greek word for hand, χειρ (kheir). The mirror images of a chiral molecule/ion are called enantiomers or optical isomers. Individual enantiomers are often designated as either right-handed or left-handed. Chirality
Chirality
is an essential consideration when discussing the stereochemistry in organic and inorganic chemistry
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Duodenum
The duodenum [help 1] is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum.[5] In mammals the duodenum may be the principal site for iron absorption.[6] The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine . In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum
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Gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis
(GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis
is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia)
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Intestine
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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Lipoprotein Lipase
NM_000237NM_008509RefSeq (protein)NP_000228NP_032535Location (UCSC) Chr 8: 19.9 – 19.97 Mb Chr 8: 68.88 – 68.91 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse Lipoprotein
Lipoprotein
lipaseIdentifiersEC number 3.1.1.34CAS number 9004-02-8DatabasesIntEnz IntEnz viewBRENDA BRENDA
BRENDA
entryExPASy NiceZyme viewKEGG KEGG
KEGG
entryMetaCyc metabolic pathwayPRIAM profilePDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsumGene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGOSearchPMC articlesPubMed articlesNCBI proteins Lipoprotein
Lipoprotein
lipase (LPL) (EC 3.1.1.34) is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase
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Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Glyceraldehyde
Glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is a chemical compound that occurs as an intermediate in several central metabolic pathways of all organisms
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Enterocyte
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine. A glycocalyx surface coat contains digestive enzymes. Microvilli
Microvilli
on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. The cells also have a secretory role.Contents1 Function 2 Clinical significance 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksFunction[edit] The major functions of enterocytes include:[1]Ion uptake, including sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. This typically occurs through active transport. Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase on the basolateral surface. This can occur transcellularly or paracellularly. Sugar uptake. Polysaccharidases and disaccharidases in the glycocalyx break down large sugar molecules, which are then absorbed
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