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Treemap
In information visualization and computing, treemapping is a method for displaying hierarchical data using nested figures, usually rectangles.Contents1 Main idea 2 Tiling algorithms 3 Rectangular treemaps 4 Convex treemaps4.1 Orthoconvex
Orthoconvex
treemaps5 Other treemaps 6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksMain idea[edit] Treemaps display hierarchical (tree-structured) data as a set of nested rectangles. Each branch of the tree is given a rectangle, which is then tiled with smaller rectangles representing sub-branches. A leaf node's rectangle has an area proportional to a specified dimension of the data. Often the leaf nodes are colored to show a separate dimension of the data. When the color and size dimensions are correlated in some way with the tree structure, one can often easily see patterns that would be difficult to spot in other ways, such as if a certain color is particularly relevant
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Primary Care Trust
A primary care trust (PCT) was part of the National Health Service in England
England
from 2001 to 2013. PCTs were largely administrative bodies, responsible for commissioning primary, community and secondary health services from providers. Until 31 May 2011 they also provided community health services directly. Collectively PCTs were responsible for spending around 80 per cent of the total NHS budget. Primary care trusts were abolished on 31 March 2013 as part of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, with their work taken over by clinical commissioning groups.Contents1 Establishment 2 Management 3 Restructuring 4 Distribution 5 References 6 External linksEstablishment[edit] In 1997 the incoming Labour Government abolished GP Fundholding
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Geovisualization
Geovisualization or Geovisualisation, short for Geographic Visualization, refers to a set of tools and techniques supporting the analysis of geospatial data through the use of interactive visualization. Like the related fields of scientific visualization[1] and information visualization [2] geovisualization emphasizes knowledge construction over knowledge storage or information transmission.[1] To do this, geovisualization communicates geospatial information in ways that, when combined with human understanding, allow for data exploration and decision-making processes.[1][3][4] Traditional, static maps have a limited exploratory capability; the graphical representations are inextricably linked to the geographical information beneath
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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ArXiv
arXiv (pronounced "archive")[2] is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008,[3][4] and hit a million by the end of 2014.[5][6] By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month.[6][7]Contents1 History 2 Peer review 3 Submission formats 4 Access 5 Copyright status of files 6 Controversy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994,[8] using the browser NCSA Mosaic
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Visualization (computer Graphics)
Visualization or visualisation (see spelling differences) is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of humanity. Examples from history include cave paintings, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek geometry, and Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for engineering and scientific purposes. Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science, education, engineering (e.g., product visualization), interactive multimedia, medicine, etc. Typical of a visualization application is the field of computer graphics. The invention of computer graphics may be the most important development in visualization since the invention of central perspective in the Renaissance
Renaissance
period
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Biological Data Visualization
Biology data visualization is a branch of bioinformatics concerned with the application of computer graphics, scientific visualization, and information visualization to different areas of the life sciences. This includes visualization of sequences, genomes, alignments, phylogenies, macromolecular structures, systems biology, microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging data. Software tools used for visualizing biological data range from simple, standalone programs to complex, integrated systems.Contents1 State-of-the-art and perspectives 2 List of visualization systems 3 Related conferences 4 ReferencesState-of-the-art and perspectives[edit] Today we are experiencing a rapid growth in volume and diversity of biological data, presenting an increasing challenge for biologists. A key step in understanding and learning from these data is visualization
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Chemical Imaging
Chemical imaging
Chemical imaging
(as quantitative – chemical mapping) is the analytical capability to create a visual image of components distribution from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time information.[1][2] Hyperspectral imaging
Hyperspectral imaging
measures contiguous spectral bands, as opposed to multispectral imaging which measures spaced spectral bands.[3] The main idea - for chemical imaging, the analyst may choose to take as many data spectrum measured at a particular chemical component in spatial location at time; this is useful for chemical identification and quantification
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Crime Mapping
Crime
Crime
mapping is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. It is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy. Mapping crime, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allows crime analysts to identify crime hot spots, along with other trends and patterns.Contents1 Overview 2 Applications 3 See also3.1 Programs and projects 3.2 Individuals 3.3 Public access 3.4 General4 References 5 Further readingOverview[edit] Using GIS, crime analysts can overlay other datasets such as census demographics, locations of pawn shops, schools, etc., to better understand the underlying causes of crime and help law enforcement administrators to devise strategies to deal with the problem
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Flow Visualization
Flow visualization
Flow visualization
or flow visualisation in fluid dynamics is used to make the flow patterns visible, in order to get qualitative or quantitative information on them.Contents1 Overview 2 Methods of visualization 3 Application 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] Flow visualization
Flow visualization
is the art of making flow patterns visible. Most fluids (air, water, etc.) are transparent, thus their flow patterns are invisible to the naked eye without methods to make them visible. Historically, such methods included experimental methods. With the development of computer models and CFD simulating flow processes (e.g. the distribution of air-conditioned air in a new car), purely computational methods have been developed. Methods of visualization[edit] Shadowgraph
Shadowgraph
of the turbulent plume of hot air rising from a home-barbecue gas grill
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Mathematical Diagram
Mathematical diagrams are diagrams in the field of mathematics, and diagrams using mathematics such as charts and graphs, that are mainly designed to convey mathematical relationships, for example, comparisons over time.[1]Contents1 Specific types of mathematical diagrams1.1 Argand diagram 1.2 Butterfly
Butterfly
diagram 1.3 Commutative diagram 1.4 Hasse diagrams 1.5 Knot diagrams 1.6 Venn diagram 1.7 Voronoi diagram 1.8 Wallpaper group
Wallpaper group
diagrams 1.9 Young diagram 1.10 Other mathematical diagrams2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksSpecific types of mathematical diagrams[edit] Argand diagram[edit]Argand diagram.A complex number can be visually represented as a pair of numbers forming a vector on a diagram called an Argand diagram
Argand diagram
The complex plane is sometimes called the Argand plane because it is used in Argand diagrams
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Museum Of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
(MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA has been important in developing and collecting modernist art, and is often identifie
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Medical Imaging
Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). Medical imaging
Medical imaging
seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Medical imaging
Medical imaging
also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities
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Molecular Graphics
Molecular graphics
Molecular graphics
(MG) is the discipline and philosophy of studying molecules and their properties through graphical representation.[1] IUPAC
IUPAC
limits the definition to representations on a "graphical display device".[2] Ever since Dalton's atoms and Kekulé's benzene, there has been a rich history of hand-drawn atoms and molecules, and these representations have had an important influence on modern molecular graphics. This article concentrates on the use of computers to create molecular graphics
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Scientific Visualization
Scientific visualization
Scientific visualization
(also spelled scientific visualisation) is an interdisciplinary branch of science. According to Friendly (2008), it is "primarily concerned with the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".[2] It is also considered a subset of computer graphics, a branch of computer science
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