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Treaty Of Tarbagatai
The Treaty of Tarbagatai (or Chuguchak) of 7 October [25 September O.S.] 1864 was a border protocol between China and Russia that defined most of the western extent of their border in central Asia, between Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
and the Khanate of Kokand.[1] The signatories were, for Russia, Ivan Zakharov, consul-general of Ili, and Ivan Fedorovich Babkov, colonel of the Separate Siberian Corps of the General Staff, and, for China, Ming I, general of Uliastai; Hsi
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Old Style
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Uliastai
Uliastai
Uliastai
(Mongolian: Улиастай; ᠣᠯᡳᠶᠠᠰᠣᡨᠠᡳ), also spelled Uliyasutai or Oulia-Sontai, and sometimes known as Javkhlant, is a city in Mongolia located in the western part of the country and 1,115 kilometres (693 mi) from the capital Ulaanbaatar. Uliastai
Uliastai
is the capital of Zavkhan Province
Zavkhan Province
and was the 10th most populous city in the country with a population of 24,276 (2000 census). However, recent estimates have the city's population at 16,240 (2006 est[update].[needs update][1]) making it the 16th most populous city in Mongolia. Uliastai
Uliastai
is located in a river valley where the Chigestai and Bogdiin Gol rivers meet, and is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is one of the most remote aimag capitals in Mongolia
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Khovd (city)
Coordinates: 48°00′15″N 91°38′26″E / 48.00417°N 91.64056°E / 48.00417; 91.64056This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Yaqub Beg
Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ) (Tajik: Яъқуб-бек, Ya’qub-bek) (1820 – 30  May 1877) was a Tajik adventurer who was master of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
from 1865 to 1877. He held the title of Atalik Ghazi ("Champion Father").[1]Contents1 Spelling variants 2 Biography 3 Opinions 4 Outside powers 5 The death of Yakub Beg 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 Sources9 In literature 10 External linksSpelling variants[edit] In English-language literature, the name of Yaqub Beg
Yaqub Beg
has also been spelt as Yakub Beg (Encyclopædia Britannica), Yakoob Beg (Boulger, 1878), or Ya`qūb Beg (Kim Hodong, 2004). Authors using Russian sources have also used the spelling Yakub-bek (Paine, 1996[2])
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T'a-ch'eng
Tacheng (Qoqek/Sawesek) or Chöchek is a county-level city (1994 est. pop. 56,400) and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, one of the autonomous regions of China. The city was sometimes called Tarbaghatay or Tarbagatai (Mongolian: 'having marmots') and was once known in European languages as Chuguchak (based on its name in the Mongolian language).[1] The current official Chinese name Tacheng is an abbreviation of "Tarbaghatay City". The current Uyghur name is Qöqäk Xäĥri. It is located in the Dzungarian Basin, some 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Chinese border with Kazakhstan. For a long time it has been a major center for trade with Central Asia because it is an agricultural hub
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Lake Balkhash
Lake Balkhash
Lake Balkhash
(Kazakh: Balqas’ Ko’li; Russian: Озеро Балхаш, Ozero Balhaš) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world. It is located in Central Asia
Central Asia
in southeastern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and belongs to an endorheic (closed) basin shared by Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and China, with a small portion in Kyrgyzstan. The basin drains into the lake via seven rivers, the primary of which is the Ili River, bringing the majority of the riparian inflow; others, such as the Karatal, provide both surface and subsurface flow. The Ili is fed by precipitation, largely vernal snowmelt, from the mountains of China's Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region. The lake currently covers an area of about 16,400 km2 (6,300 sq mi)
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Russia-Qing Convention
The Convention for the Lease of the Liaotung Peninsula (Chinese: 旅大租地条约 Russian: Русско-китайская конвенция), also known as the Pavlov Agreement, is a treaty signed between Alexander Pavlov of the Empire of Russia and Li Hongzhang of the Qing Empire of China on 27 March 1898
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Yining City
Yining
Yining
(Chinese: 伊宁), also known as Ghulja (Uyghur: غۇلجا‎; Kazakh: قۇلجا, Құлжа, Qulja),[b] and formerly Ningyuan (寧遠) is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Historically, Yining
Yining
is the successor to the ruined city of Almaliq in neighbouring Huocheng County.Contents1 Area and population 2 History2.1 Note on historical place names 2.2 Qing dynasty 2.3 Republic of China 2.4 People's Republic3 Geography3.1 Climate4 Administrative divisions 5 Economy 6 Transportation 7 Culture 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksArea and population[edit] The city of Yining
Yining
is a county-level administrative unit located along Ili River
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Ivan Zakharov
Ivan Ilyich Zakharov (Russian: Иван Ильич Захаров; 1816 - 1885) was a Russian diplomat who worked in the Peking Orthodox Mission between 1839 and 1850. As the first Russian consul in China he prepared the Treaty of Kulja (1851) and helped delineate the Russo-Chinese borders in 1864. Zakharov ended his career as Professor of Manchu Philology at the St. Petersburg Imperial University. Most of his works have never been published. His Russian-Manchu wordbook of 1875 became one of the first Manchu dictionaries available in Europe at the time of its publication. Zakharov's outline of Manchu grammar appeared in 1879 and was reprinted 100 years later by Global Oriental (ISBN 9781905246083) as "an important book that is so rare as to be virtually unobtainable".[1] References[edit]^ Early China, Volume 4. Society for the Study of Early China (Berkeley, Calif.), 1979
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Khanate Of Kokand
The Khanate of Kokand
Kokand
(Uzbek: Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Kyrgyz: Кокон хандыгы, Qoqon xandığı/Kokon handygy, قوقون حاندىعى; Persian: خانات خوقند‎, Xānigari-i Xuqand / Xānāt-i Xuqand) was a Central Asian[3] state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan
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Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
(Mongolian script: ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯ or ᠠᠷᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯ , Mongolian Cyrillic: Гадаад Монгол or Ар Монгол, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol; Chinese: 外蒙古; pinyin: Wài Měnggǔ)[1] was a territory of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644–1912). Its area was roughly equivalent to that of the modern state of Mongolia, which is sometimes called "North Mongolia" in China
China
today, plus the Russian republic of Tuva
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(6 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(9 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(6 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(31 million). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(pop
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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1991 Sino-Soviet Border Agreement
The 1991 Sino-Soviet Border Agreement was a treaty between China and the Soviet Union that set up demarcation work to resolve most of the border disputes between the two states. Initially signed by China and the Soviet Union, the terms of the agreement were resumed by Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The treaty resulted in some minor territorial changes along the border.Contents1 Background 2 Agreement 3 Disputed territories and their resolution3.1 Western border 3.2 Argun River 3.3 Amur River 3.4 Ussuri River 3.5 Lake Khanka 3.6 Suifen River 3.7 Granitnaya River 3.8 Tumen River 3.9 Sino-Russian-North Korean border4 Relation to Taiwanese mainland claim 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksBackground[edit] The border between the Soviet Union and China had long been an issue of contention
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Sino-Soviet Treaty Of Friendship, Alliance And Mutual Assistance
Joseph Stalin; Mao Zedong People's Republic of China  Soviet UnionThe Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance (simplified Chinese: 中苏友好同盟互助条约; traditional Chinese: 中蘇友好同盟互助條約; pinyin: Zhōng-Sū Yǒuhǎo Tóngméng Hùzhù Tiáoyuè), or Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance for short, is the treaty of alliance concluded between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union on February 14, 1950. It was based to a considerable extent on the prior Treaty of the same name that had been arranged between the Soviet Union and the Nationalist government of China in 1945 and it was the product of extended negotiations between Liu Shaoqi and Stalin
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