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Treaty Of Tarbagatai
A TREATY is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations . A treaty may also be known as an (INTERNATIONAL) AGREEMENT, PROTOCOL, COVENANT, CONVENTION, PACT, or EXCHANGE OF LETTERS, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts : both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law
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Memoranda Of Understanding
A MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING (MOU) is an agreement between two (bilateral ) or more (multilateral ) parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in situations where the parties cannot create a legally enforceable agreement. It is a more formal alternative to a gentlemen\'s agreement . Whether a document constitutes a binding contract depends only on the presence or absence of well-defined legal elements in the text proper of the document (the so-called "four corners "). The required elements are: offer and acceptance , consideration , and the intention to be legally bound (animus contrahendi). In the U.S., the specifics can differ slightly depending on whether the contract is for goods (falls under the Uniform Commercial Code
Uniform Commercial Code
) or services (falls under the common law of the state)
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Interstate Compact
In the United States of America
United States of America
, an INTERSTATE COMPACT is an agreement between two or more states . Article I, Section 10 of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
provides that "No State shall, without the Consent of Congress... enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State." Consent can be obtained in one of three ways. First, there can be a model compact and Congress can grant automatic approval for any state wishing to join it, such as the Driver License Compact . Second, states can submit a compact to Congress prior to entering into the compact. Third, states can agree to a compact then submit it to Congress for approval, which, if it does so, causes it to come into effect. Not all compacts between states require explicit Congressional approval - the Supreme Court ruled in Virginia v
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North Korea
Coordinates : 40°00′N 127°00′E / 40.000°N 127.000°E / 40.000; 127.000 Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 CHOSŏN MINJUJUŭI INMIN KONGHWAGUK Flag Emblem ANTHEM: * " Aegukka " * Korean : 애국가, The Patriotic Song Area controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Nuclear Proliferation
NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION is the spread of nuclear weapons , fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons , commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT. Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "countervalue " targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states
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Kyoto Protocol
The KYOTO PROTOCOL is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto
Kyoto
Protocol was adopted in Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February 16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties ( Canada
Canada
withdrew effective December 2012) to the Protocol
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United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change
The UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on May 9, 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
from 3 to 14 June 1992. It then entered into force on 21 March 1994, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified it. The UNFCCC objective is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system ". The framework sets no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. Instead, the framework outlines how specific international treaties (called "protocols" or "Agreements") may be negotiated to specify further action towards the objective of the UNFCCC
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Treaty Of Locarno
The LOCARNO TREATIES were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno , Switzerland
Switzerland
, on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London
London
on 1 December, in which the First World War Western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany
Germany
(the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
). It also stated that Germany
Germany
would never go to war with the other countries. Locarno divided borders in Europe into two categories: western, which were guaranteed by Locarno treaties, and eastern borders of Germany
Germany
with Poland, which were open for revision
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Reservation (law)
A RESERVATION in international law is a caveat to a state's acceptance of a treaty. A reservation is defined by the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) as: a unilateral statement, however phrased or named, made by a State , when signing, ratifying , accepting, approving or acceding to a treaty , whereby it purports to exclude or to modify the legal effect of certain provisions of the treaty in their application to that State. (Article 2 (1)(d)) In effect, a reservation allows the state to be a party to the treaty, while excluding the legal effect of that specific provision in the treaty to which it objects. States cannot take reservations after they have accepted the treaty; a reservation must be made at the time that the treaty affects the State. The Vienna Convention did not create the concept of reservations but codified existing customary law . Thus even States that have not formally acceded to the Vienna Convention act as if they had
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Procès-verbal
PROCèS-VERBAL (French procès, process, Late Latin
Late Latin
verbalis, from verbum, word) is a legal term with a number of meanings: IN LAW * in French, Belgian and Dutch law (proces-verbal, proces verbaal), a detailed authenticated account drawn up by a magistrate , police officer, or other person having authority of acts or proceedings done in the exercise of his duty. * in a criminal charge, a PROCèS-VERBAL is a statement of the facts of the case * the written minutes of a meeting or assemblyIN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND DIPLOMACY * in international law and diplomacy , a procès-verbal is the process of adopting corrections to the text of a treaty, by mutual agreement of the parties
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Environmental Protocol
An ENVIRONMENTAL PROTOCOL is a type of international law , "an intergovernmental document intended as legally binding with a primary stated purpose of preventing or managing human impacts on natural resources." International environmental protocols came to feature in environmental governance after trans-boundary environmental problems became widely perceived in the 1960s. Following the Stockholm Intergovernmental Conference in 1972, creation of international environmental agreements proliferated. The world's existing political systems pose barriers to the creation of environmental protocols
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Treaty Of Waitangi
The TREATY OF WAITANGI (Māori : Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown
British Crown
and various Māori chiefs from the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand
New Zealand
. It resulted in the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand
New Zealand
by Lieutenant Governor William Hobson in May 1840. The Treaty
Treaty
established a British Governor of New Zealand , recognised Māori ownership of their lands, forests and other properties, and gave the Māori the rights of British subjects . In return the Māori people ceded New Zealand
New Zealand
to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, giving her government the sole right to purchase land
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Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs
The SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic ) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. As noted below, its major effects included updating the Paris Convention of 13 July 1931 to include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening thirty years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones. From 1931 to 1961, most of the families of synthetic opioids had been developed, including drugs related to methadone , pethidine , morphinans and dextromoramide ; research on fentanyls and piritramide was also nearing fruition at that point. Earlier treaties had only controlled opium , coca , and derivatives such as morphine , heroin and cocaine
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Peremptory Norm
A PEREMPTORY NORM (also called JUS COGENS or IUS COGENS /ˌdʒʌs ˈkoʊdʒɛnz/ or /ˌjʌs/ ; Latin
Latin
for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted. There is no universal agreement regarding precisely which norms are jus cogens nor how a norm reaches that status, but it is generally accepted that jus cogens includes the prohibition of genocide , maritime piracy , slaving in general (to include slavery as well as the slave trade ), torture , refoulement and wars of aggression and territorial aggrandizement . Recent scholarship has also proposed the idea of regional jus cogens
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