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Caliphate Of Córdoba
The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة‎; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty"> Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba"> Emirate of Córdoba (756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself caliph (Arabic: Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">خليفة) of Córdoba in place of his original title, Emirate of Córdoba"> Emir of Córdoba (Arabic: Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">أمير قرطبة 'Amīr Qurṭuba)
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Western Sahara Conflict
 Francoist Spain (1970–1975)

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Prehistoric North Africa
The Prehistory of North Africa spans the period of earliest human presence in the region to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in c. 3100 BC. North Africa is defined by the United Nations to consist of the seven countries or territories situated between the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean Sea">Mediterranean: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. Geographically, it can also be held to include the Saharan portions of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Chad. As modern humans are generally believed to originate in Africa, prehistoric North Africa may hold important clues in understanding the evolution and spread of Homo sapiens
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Maghrawa
The Maghrawa or Meghrawa (Berber: imeghrawen) were a large Zenata Berber tribe originating from what is now north of Morocco and Algeria to the mountainous Dahra region to western Algeria
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Banu Ifran
The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabic: بنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria with Tlemcen as its capital. The Banu Ifran resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad invaders. In the eighth century they mobilized around the dogma of sufri, revolting against the Arab Umayyads and Abbasids. In the 10th century they founded a dynasty opposed to the Fatimids, the Zirids, the Umayyads, the Hammadids and the Maghraoua
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Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Fatimid state took shape among the Kutama Berbers, in the West of the North African littoral, in Algeria, in 909 conquering Raqqada, the Aghlabid capital. In 921 the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their new capital
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Tangier International Zone
The Tangier International Zone (Arabic: منطقة طنجة الدوليةMinṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, French: Zone Internationale de Tanger, Spanish: Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373-square-kilometre (144 sq mi) international zone centered on the city of
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1972 Moroccan Coup Attempt
The 1972 Moroccan coup attempt was an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate King Hassan II of Morocco on 16 August 1972. The attempted coup d'état occurred in Morocco when a rebel faction within the Moroccan military attempted to shoot down an aircraft carrying the Moroccan king, Hassan II. The attempt was orchestrated by General Mohamed Oufkir, a close advisor to King Hassan
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Madrid Accords
The Madrid Accords, also called Madrid Agreement or Madrid Pact, was a treaty between Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania to end the Spanish presence in the territory of Spanish Sahara, which was until the Madrid Accords' inception a Spanish province and former colony. It was signed in Madrid on November 14, 1975, although it was never published on the Boletin Oficial del Estado
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; UK: /ʊˈmjæd, ˈ-/, US: /ˈm(j)əd, -æd/; Arabic language">Arabic: ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة‎, romanizedal-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty"> Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic language">Arabic: ٱلْأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawīyūn, or Arabic language text">بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayyah, "Sons of Umayyah")
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Ifni War
The Ifni War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain (la Guerra Olvidada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege of Sidi Ifni. The war, which may be seen as part of the general movement of decolonization that swept
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Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb (Tamazgha). It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains. Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli. Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana"> Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis"> Mauretania Caesariensis
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Acheulean
Acheulean (/əˈʃliən/; also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with early humans. Acheulean tools were produced during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia, and Europe, and are typically found with Homo erectus"> Homo erectus remains. It is thought that Acheulean technologies first developed in Africa out of the more primitive Oldowan technology as long as 1.76 million years ago, by Homo habilis"> Homo habilis
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