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Tragedy Of The Commons
The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action
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Selsley Common
Selsley
Selsley
is a village within the civil parish of King's Stanley
King's Stanley
and district of Stroud, in Gloucestershire, England. It is composed of around 175 houses, scattered around the western and eastern edge of a Cotswold
Cotswold
spur, located approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Stroud. Selsley Common
Selsley Common
is an ancient place, but the name Selsley
Selsley
was only used for the settlement after the parish was created in 1863, with the village divided into Selsley
Selsley
West and Selsley
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Selfish
Selfishness is being concerned excessively or exclusively, for oneself or one's own advantage, pleasure, or welfare, regardless of others.[1][2] Selfishness is the opposite of altruism or selflessness; and has also been contrasted (as by C. S
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Value (personal And Cultural)
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. It may be described as treating actions as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and living a good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively high valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" (adjective sense), and that an action of low value, or relatively low in value, may be regarded as "bad".[citation needed] What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good" (noun sense). Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be
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Welfare State
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization.[1] The sociologist T.H. Marshall described the modern welfare state as a distinctive combination of democracy, welfare, and capitalism.[2] Modern welfare states include Germany, France, Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands,[3] as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland[4] which employ a system known as the Nordic model
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Malthusian Catastrophe
A Malthusian catastrophe
Malthusian catastrophe
(also known as Malthusian check or Malthusian spectre) is a prediction of a forced return to subsistence-level conditions once population growth has outpaced agricultural production.Contents1 Thomas Malthus 2 Neo-Malthusian theory 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksThomas Malthus[edit] In 1779, Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus
wrote:Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
(UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot
Palais de Chaillot
in Paris, France. Of the then 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. The Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not legally binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, and other laws
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U Thant
Thant (/θɑːnt/; Burmese: သန့်; MLCTS: san.; IPA: [θa̰ɴ]; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), known honorifically as U Thant
U Thant
(/ˌuː ˈθɑːnt/),[a] was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations
Secretary-General of the United Nations
from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position. He held the office for a record 10 years and one month (3,684 days). A native of Pantanaw, Thant was educated at the National High School and at the Rangoon University. In the days of tense political climate in Burma, he held moderate views positioning himself between fervent nationalists and British loyalists. He was a close friend of Burma's first Prime Minister U Nu
U Nu
and served various positions in Nu's cabinet from 1948 to 1961
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Secretary-General Of The United Nations
The Secretary-General of the United Nations
United Nations
(UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. The Secretary-General serves as the chief administrative officer of the United Nations
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
(/ˈheɪɡəl/;[15] German: [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well.[16] Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism sometimes termed "absolute idealism",[17] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Maxim (saying)
A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style
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Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(/ˈɛŋɡəlz/,[2][3] /ˈɛŋəlz/;[3] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈɛŋəls], sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.[4] His father was an owner of a large textile factory at Manchester, England. Engels founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and in 1845 published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in Manchester. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
with Marx
Marx
and also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works. Later, Engels supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write Das Kapital
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Thomas Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus
FRS (/ˈmælθəs/; 13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834)[1] was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.[2] Malthus himself used only his middle name, Robert.[3] In his 1798 book An Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, mankind had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian trap" or the "Malthusian spectre"
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Metaphor
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.[1] It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile are all types of metaphor.[2] One of the most commonly cited examples of a metaphor in English literature is the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It:All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances ... —William Shakespeare, As You Like It, 2/7[3]This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage. By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the behavior of the people within it. The Philosophy of Rhetoric
Rhetoric
(1937) by rhetorician I. A
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