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Tractive Force
As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total traction that is parallel to the direction of motion.[1] In railway engineering, the term tractive effort is often used synonymously with tractive force to describe the pulling or pushing capability of a locomotive. In automotive engineering, the terms are distinctive: tractive effort is generally higher than tractive force by the amount of rolling resistance present, and both terms are higher than the amount of drawbar pull by the total resistance present (including air resistance and grade). The published tractive force value for any vehicle may be theoretical—that is, calculated from known or implied mechanical properties—or obtained via testing under controlled conditions
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Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Engineering
is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others
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Bore (engine)
The bore or cylinder bore is a part of a piston engine. The bore also represents the size, in terms of diameter, of the cylinder in which a piston travels. The value of a cylinders bore, and stroke, is used to establish the displacement of an engine.[1] The term "bore" can also be applied to the bore of a locomotive cylinder or steam engine pistons. References[edit]^ Schwaller, Anthony (1999). Motor Automotive Technology
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Bearing (mechanical)
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Most bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts. Rotary bearings hold rotating components such as shafts or axles within mechanical systems, and transfer axial and radial loads from the source of the load to the structure supporting it. The simplest form of bearing, the plain bearing, consists of a shaft rotating in a hole. Lubrication
Lubrication
is often used to reduce friction
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Gravity
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Aerodynamic Force
The aerodynamic force is the force exerted on a body by the air (or some other gas) in which the body is immersed, and is due to the relative motion between the body and the gas. The aerodynamic force arises from two causes: [1][2]:§4.10[3]the normal force due to the pressure on the surface of the body the shear force due to the viscosity of the gas, also known as skin friction. Pressure
Pressure
acts locally, normal to the surface, and shear force acts locally, parallel to the surface. The net aerodynamic force over the body is due to the pressure and shear forces integrated over the total exposed area of the body.[4] When an airfoil (or a wing) is moving relative to the air it generates an aerodynamic force, in a rearward direction at an angle with the direction of relative motion
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Hunting Oscillation
Hunting oscillation
Hunting oscillation
is a self-oscillation, usually unwanted, about an equilibrium.[1] The expression came into use in the 19th century and describes how a system "hunts" for equilibrium.[1] The expression is used to describe phenomena in such diverse fields as electronics, aviation, biology, and railway engineering.[1]Contents1 Railway
Railway
wheelsets1.1 Kinematic
Kinematic
analysis1.1.1 Assumptions and non-mathematical description 1.1.2 Mathematical analysis1.2 Energy
Energy
balance 1.3 Limitation of simplified analysis 1.4 Road-Rail vehicles2 See also 3 References Railway
Railway
wheelsets[edit] Main article: Wheelset (rail transport) A classical hunting oscillation is a swaying motion of a railway vehicle (often called truck hunting) caused by the coning action on which the directional stability of an adhesion railway depends
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Drawbar (haulage)
A drawbar is a solid coupling between a hauling vehicle and its hauled load. Drawbars are in common use with rail transport, road trailers, both large and small, industrial and recreational, and with agricultural equipment.Contents1 Agriculture 2 Road 3 Rail3.1 Rail applications4 See also 5 ReferencesAgriculture[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2008)Agricultural equipment is hauled by a tractor mounted drawbar. Specialist agricultural tools such as ploughs are attached to specialist drawbars which have functions in addition to transmitting tractive force. Road[edit] A drawbar is mounted or located on the tractive vehicle and is used to accept the coupling of the load. The direction of haulage may be push or pull, though pushing tends to be for a pair of ballast tractors working one pulling and the other pushing an exceptional load on a specialist trailer. The drawbar should not be confused with the fifth wheel coupling
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Strain Gauge
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate.[1] As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. This resistance change, usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor.Contents1 Physical operation 2 Gauge factor 3 In practice3.1 Variations in temperature4 Errors and compensation 5 Other types 6 Mechanical types 7 See also 8 ReferencesPhysical operation[edit]An unmounted resistive foil strain gauge.A strain gauge takes advantage of the physical property of electrical conductance and its dependence on the conductor's geometry
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Dynamometer Car
A dynamometer car is a railroad maintenance of way car used for measuring various aspects of a locomotive's performance. Measurements include tractive effort (pulling force), power, top speed, etc.Contents1 History 2 Usage 3 Power calculations 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The first dynamometer car was probably one built in about 1838 by the "Father of Computing" Charles Babbage.[1][2][3] Working for the Great Western Railway of Great Britain, he equipped a passenger carriage to be placed between an engine and train and record data on a continuously moving roll of paper. The recorded data included the pulling force of the engine, a plot of the path of the carriage and the vertical shake of the carriage
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Stroke (engines)
In the context of an Internal combustion engine, the term stroke has the following related meanings:A phase of the engine's cycle (eg compression stroke, exhaust stroke), during which the piston travels from top to bottom or vice-versa. The type of power cycle used by a piston engine (eg two-stroke engine, four-stroke engine). "Stroke length", the distance travelled by the piston in each cycle. The stroke length- along with bore diameter- determines the engine's displacement.Contents1 Phases in the power cycle1.1 Induction/ Intake
Intake
stroke 1.2 Compression stroke 1.3 Combustion/Power/Expansion stroke 1.4 Exhaust stroke2 Types of power cycles2.1 Two-stroke engine 2.2 Four-strokes engine3 Stroke lengthPhases in the power cycle[edit]The phases/strokes of a four-stroke engine. 1: intake 2: compression 3: power 4: exhaustCommonly-used engine phases/strokes (ie those used in a four-stroke engine) are described below
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Piston
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod
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Pounds Per Square Inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2;[1] abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch. In SI units, 1 psi is approximately equal to 6895 N/m2. Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch
absolute (psia) is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is pounds per square inch gauge (psig), indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure
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Traction Motor
A traction motor is an electric motor used for propulsion of a vehicle, such as an electric locomotive or electric roadway vehicle. Traction motors are used in electrically powered rail vehicles (electric multiple units) and other electric vehicles including electric milk floats, elevators, conveyors, and trolleybuses, as well as vehicles with electrical transmission systems (diesel-electric, electric hybrid vehicles), and battery electric vehicles.Contents1 Motor types and control 2 Transportation applications2.1 Road vehicles 2.2 Railways2.2.1 Mounting of motors 2.2.2 Windings 2.2.3 Power control 2.2.4 Dynamic braking 2.2.5 Automatic acceleration3 Rating 4 Cooling 5 Manufacturers 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksMotor types and control[edit] Direct-current motors with series field windings are the oldest type of traction motors
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Association Of American Railroads
The Association of American Railroads
Association of American Railroads
(AAR) is an industry trade group representing primarily the major freight railroads of North America (Canada, Mexico
Mexico
and the United States).[citation needed] Amtrak
Amtrak
and some regional commuter railroads are also members
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Virginian Railway
The Virginian Railway
Virginian Railway
(reporting mark VGN) was a Class I railroad located in Virginia
Virginia
and West Virginia
Virginia
in the United States
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