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Toyota Hilux
The Toyota
Toyota
Hilux (also stylized as HiLux and historically as Hi-Lux) is a series of light commercial vehicles produced and marketed by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota. The majority of these vehicles were sold as pickup truck or cab chassis variants although they could be configured in a variety of body styles. Most countries used the Hilux name for the entire life of the series but in North America, the Hilux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck, Pickup Truck, or Compact Truck. In North America the popular option package, the SR5 (Sport Rally 5-Speed), was colloquially used as a model name for the truck, even though the option package was also used on other Toyota
Toyota
models like the 1972 to 1979 Corolla. In 1984, the Toyota
Toyota
Trekker, the camper version of the Hilux, was renamed as the 4Runner in Australia and North America, and as the Hilux Surf in Japan
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A-arm
In automotive suspension, a control arm, also known as an A-arm, is a hinged suspension link between the chassis and the suspension upright or hub that carries the wheel. The inboard (chassis) end of a control arm is attached by a single pivot, usually a rubber bushing. It can thus control the position of the outboard end in only a single degree of freedom, maintaining the radial distance from the inboard mount. Although not deliberately free to move, the single bushing does not control the arm from moving back and forth; this motion is constrained by a separate link or radius rod.[1] This is in contrast to the wishbone. Wishbones are triangular and have two widely spaced inboard bearings. These constrain the outboard end of the wishbone from moving back and forth, controlling two degrees of freedom, and without requiring additional links. Most control arms form the lower link of a suspension. A few designs use them as the upper link, usually with a lower wishbone
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SOHC
Overhead camshaft,[1][2] commonly abbreviated to OHC,[1][2] is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads ("above" the pistons and combustion chambers) and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods.Contents1 Overview 2 Single overhead camshaft2.1 Alternative SOHC layouts3 Dual overhead camshaft 4 Triple overhead camshaft 5 Camshaft
Camshaft
drive systems5.1 Timing belt 5.2 Timing chain 5.3 Bevel shaft 5.4 Gear train 5.5 Cranks and rods6 Variable
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Transmission (mechanics)
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.[1][2] In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential, and final drive shafts. In American English, however, the term refers more specifically to the gearbox alone, and detailed usage differs.[note 1] The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process
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Cruise Control
Cruise control
Cruise control
(sometimes known as speed control or autocruise, or tempomat in some countries) is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle. The system is a servomechanism that takes over the throttle of the car to maintain a steady speed as set by the driver.Contents1 History 2 Operation 3 Advantages and disadvantages 4 Adaptive cruise control 5 References 6 See also 7 External linksHistory[edit] Speed
Speed
control was used in automobiles as early as 1900 in the Wilson-Pilcher
Wilson-Pilcher
and also in the 1910s by Peerless. Peerless
Peerless
advertised that their system would "maintain speed whether up hill or down". The technology was adopted by James Watt and Matthew Boulton
Matthew Boulton
in 1788 to control steam engines, but the use of governors dates at least back to the 17th century
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Rear-wheel Drive
In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, and the location of each is dependent on the application for which the vehicle will be used. Factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging (location and size of the passenger compartment and boot), weight distribution, and the vehicle's intended handling characteristics. Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories: front- or rear-wheel drive
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Coil Spring
A coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which returns to its natural length when unloaded. Under tension or compression, the material (wire) of a coil spring undergoes torsion. The spring characteristics therefore depend on the shear modulus, not Young's Modulus. A coil spring may also be used as a torsion spring: in this case the spring as a whole is subjected to torsion about its helical axis. The material of the spring is thereby subjected to a bending moment, either reducing or increasing the helical radius
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Live Axle
A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft. Beam axles were once commonly used at the rear wheels of a vehicle, but historically they have also been used as front axles in rear-wheel-drive vehicles. In most automobiles, beam axles have been replaced by front and rear independent suspensions.Contents1 Implementation 2 Live axle vs dead axle 3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 See also 6 NotesImplementation[edit]Solid axle suspension characteristics: Camber change on bumps, none on rebound, large unsprung weightWith a beam axle the camber angle between the wheels is the same no matter where it is in the travel of the suspension. A beam axle's fore & aft location is constrained by either: trailing arms, semi-trailing arms, radius rods, or leaf springs. The lateral location is constrained by either: a Panhard rod, a Scott Russell linkage or a Watt's linkage
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Leaf Spring
A leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Originally called a laminated or carriage spring, and sometimes referred to as a semi-elliptical spring or cart spring, it is one of the oldest forms of springing, appearing on carriages in England after 1750 and from there migrating to France and Germany. [1]Leaf springs front independent suspension, front-wheel-drive Alvis 1928Independent front suspension by transverse leaf spring Humber 1935Independent front suspension by semi-elliptical springs Mercedes Benz 230 W153 1938 Leaf spring
Leaf spring
on a German locomotive built by Orenstein-Koppel and Lübecker MaschinenbauA leaf spring takes the form of a slender arc-shaped length of spring steel of rectangular cross-section. In the most common configuration, the center of the arc provides location for the axle, while loops formed at either end provide for attaching to the vehicle chassis
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Wheelbase
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles (e.g. some trucks), the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the steering (front) axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. Wheelbase
Wheelbase
(measured between rotational centers of wheels)Contents1 Vehicles1.1 Varying wheelbases within nameplate 1.2 Bikes 1.3 Skateboards2 Rail 3 See also 4 ReferencesVehicles[edit] The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero
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Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.[1][2] Heat
Heat
engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air; and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy
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Toyota, Aichi
Toyota
Toyota
(豊田市, Toyota-shi) is a city in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015[update], the city had an estimated population of 420,076 and a population density of 457 persons per km². The total area was 918.32 square kilometres (354.57 sq mi). It is located about 35 minutes from Nagoya
Nagoya
by way of the Meitetsu
Meitetsu
Toyota Line. Several of Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation's manufacturing plants, including the Tsutsumi plant, are located here
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Tahara Plant
The Tahara plant
Tahara plant
(Japanese: 田原工場) is an automobile plant in Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Japan
owned by Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation. It was opened in January 1979.[1] It is the most computerized and robotized automotive plant in the world and produces Lexus
Lexus
brand vehicles, including the Lexus
Lexus
IS, Lexus
Lexus
GS, Lexus
Lexus
LS, Lexus
Lexus
GX, and Lexus
Lexus
LX models.[2] Several Toyota
Toyota
vehicles have been assembled there as well, including the Celica, Land Cruiser, Land Cruiser Prado, RAV4/Vanguard, WISH, and 4Runner.[1] When employees enter the factory floor, they pass through an air shower to remove dust. Employees look through 4000 details for every car produced
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Front-engine Design
In automotive design, an FWD, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.Contents1 Usage implications 2 Historical arrangements2.1 Mid-engine / Front-wheel drive 2.2 Longitudinally mounted front-engine and front-wheel drive 2.3 Front-engine transversely mounted / Front-wheel drive2.3.1 Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
design characteristics 2.3.2 Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
shafts3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingUsage implications[edit] Further information: Automobile layout
Automobile layout
and Front-wheel-driveFront-engine positionHistorically, this designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line
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Diesel Engine
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. In diesel engines, glow plugs (combustion chamber pre-warmers) may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, or both
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Automatic Transmission
An automatic transmission, also called auto, self-shifting transmission, n-speed automatic (where n is its number of forward gear ratios), or AT, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Like other transmission systems on vehicles, it allows an internal combustion engine, best suited to run at a relatively high rotational speed, to provide a range of speed and torque outputs necessary for vehicular travel. The number of forward gear ratios is often expressed for manual transmissions as well (e.g., 6-speed manual). The most popular form found in automobiles is the hydraulic automatic transmission. Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. This system uses a fluid coupling in place of a friction clutch, and accomplishes gear changes by hydraulically locking and unlocking a system of planetary gears
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