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Torsten Wiesel
Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist. Together with David H. Hubel,[5][6][7] he received the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[4] for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system; the prize was shared with Roger W. Sperry[8] for his independent research on the cerebral hemispheres.[9][10][11][12][13]Contents1 Career 2 Research 3 Awards and honors 4 Personal life4.1 Human rights5 See also 6 ReferencesCareer[edit] Wiesel was born in Uppsala, Sweden in 1924, the youngest of five children. In 1947, he began his scientific career in Carl Gustaf Bernhard's laboratory at the Karolinska Institute, where he received his medical degree in 1954. He went on to teach in the Institute's department of physiology and worked in the child psychiatry unit of the Karolinska Hospital
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International Brain Research Organization
The International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) is a learned society that was founded in 1961 in response to the growing demand from neuroscientists in many countries for the creation of a central organization that would cut across world boundaries and improve communication and collaboration among brain researchers. At present, IBRO membership includes more than 80 corporate and academic affiliated associations with a combined membership of over 75,000 neuroscientists, making it the world's largest organization of scientists and physicians devoted to advancing understanding of the brain and nervous system. The origin of IBRO can be traced back to a meeting of electroencephalographers in London
London
in 1947, which led to the establishment of an International Federation of EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology
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Binocular Vision
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings. Neurological researcher Manfred Fahle has stated six specific advantages of having two eyes rather than just one:[1]It gives a creature a spare eye in case one is damaged. It gives a wider field of view. For example, humans have a maximum horizontal field of view of approximately 190 degrees with two eyes, approximately 120 degrees of which makes up the binocular field of view (seen by both eyes) flanked by two uniocular fields (seen by only one eye) of approximately 40 degrees.[2] It can give stereopsis in which binocular disparity (or parallax) provided by the two eyes' different positions on the head gives precise depth perception
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Cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.[1] Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes.[1] Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night.[1] This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces.[6] Poor vision caused by cataracts may also result in an increased risk of falling and depression.[2] Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide.[3][7] Cataracts are most commonly due to aging but may also occur due to trauma or radiation exposure, be present from birth, or occur following eye surgery for other problems.[1][4] Risk factors include diabetes, smoking tobacco, prolonged exposure to sunlight, and alcohol.[1] Either clumps of protein or yellow-brown pigment may be deposited in the lens reducing the transmission of light to the retina at the back of the eye.[1] Diagnosis is by an eye exami
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Strabismus
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.[2] The eye which is focused on an object can alternate.[3] The condition may be present occasionally or constantly.[3] If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception.[3] If onset is during adulthood, it is more likely to result in double vision.[3] Strabismus
Strabismus
can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma, or infections.[3] Risk factors i
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Neuron
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell (biology)cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via specialized connections called synapses. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are many types of specialized neurons. Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons
respond to one particular type of stimulus such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain
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Electrode
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air)
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New York Academy Of Sciences
The New York Academy of Sciences
New York Academy of Sciences
(originally the Lyceum of Natural History) was founded in January 1817.[1] It is one of the oldest scientific societies in the United States.[3] An independent, non-profit organization with more than 20,000 members in 100 countries, the Academy's mission is "to advance scientific research and knowledge; to support scientific literacy; and to promote the resolution of society's global challenges through science-based solutions".[4] The current President and CEO is Ellis Rubinstein;[5] the current chair of the board of governors of the Academy is NYU professor and longtime Senior Vice President of all research for IBM, Paul Horn
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Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden
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Serbian Academy Of Sciences And Arts
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
(Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности/Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti, abbr
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Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, often abbreviated as ADARC, is a medical research institution dedicated to finding a cure for HIV/AIDS. It is headed by scientist Dr. David Ho, who was the 1996 Person of the Year (TIME magazine), and is located in New York City.[1] Opening in 1991, the center was the brainchild of the Aaron Diamond Foundation headed by his widow Irene Diamond, the NYC Dept. of Health, the Public Health Research Institute and New York University School of Medicine. ADARC has already made several notable achievements in the fight against the epidemic.[clarification needed] In April 2017, According to the reports, TaiMed inked licensing agreement with the ADARC for bispecific monoclonal antibody technology.[2] References[edit]^ Park, Alice (25 January 2010). "Scientist David Ho: The Man Who Could Beat AIDS". Time. Retrieved 24 January 2010.  ^ "SR-Research Roundup". Speaking of Research. 2017-05-05
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Hospital For Special Surgery
Hospital
Hospital
for Special
Special
Surgery (HSS) is a hospital in New York City
New York City
that specializes in orthopedic surgery and the treatment of rheumatologic conditions. Founded in 1863 by James Knight, HSS is the oldest orthopedic hospital in the United States and is considered one of the top hospitals in the world for joint replacement. The hospital also performs the most knee replacement surgeries of any hospital in the United States.[1] Todd Albert, M.D. serves as the medical director and surgeon-in-chief, and Louis Shapiro serves as its president and chief executive officer. Additional areas of expertise at HSS include spine surgery and sports medicine.[2] HSS physicians with a subspecialty training in the field of spine surgery focus on patients who suffer from congenital or acute spinal disorders as well as from chronic back pain
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Pew Center On Global Climate Change
The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) is an environmental nonprofit organization based in Arlington, Virginia.[1] Launched in 2011, C2ES is the successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change.[2] C2ES works closely with policymakers and stakeholders to promote pragmatic, effective policies at the state, national and international levels.Contents1 Leadership 2 Strategies 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLeadership[edit] Bob Perciasepe, the former deputy administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), became the organization’s president in August 2014, succeeding Eileen Claussen, the center’s founding president
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Okinawa Institute Of Science And Technology
Coordinates: 26°27′43.01″N 127°49′51.8″E / 26.4619472°N 127.831056°E / 26.4619472; 127.831056 Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Graduate UniversityEstablished 1 November 2011President Peter GrussFaculty 50Staff 625Budget ¥19.8 billionLocation Onna, Okinawa, JapanWebsite Official websiteThe Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Graduate University (沖縄科学技術大学院大学, Okinawa Kagaku Gijutsu Daigakuin Daigaku, OIST) is an interdisciplinary graduate school located in Onna, Okinawa
Onna, Okinawa
Prefecture, Japan. The school offers a 5-year PhD program in Science
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Order Of The Rising Sun
The Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
(旭日章, Kyokujitsu-shō) is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government,[1] created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State.[2] The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun[3] in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan
Japan
("Land of the Rising Sun"). The order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment.[4] Prior to the end of World War II, it was also awarded for exemplary military service
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Columbia University
Columbia University
Columbia University
(Columbia; officially Columbia University
Columbia University
in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Columbia contains the oldest college in the state of New York and is the fifth chartered institution of higher learning in the United States, making it one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence.[9] It was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain
George II of Great Britain
and renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolutionary War. The college has produced numerous distinguished alumni
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