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Toledot Yeshu
Sefer Toledot Yeshu
Yeshu
(ספר תולדות ישו, The Book of the Generations/History/Life of Jesus), often abbreviated as Toledot Yeshu, is an early Jewish
Jewish
text taken to be an alternative biography of Jesus. It exists in a number of different versions, none of which are considered either canonical or normative within rabbinic literature,[1] but which appear to have been widely circulated in Europe and the Middle East in the medieval period.[2][3] A 15th-century Yemenite work of the same was titled Maaseh Yeshu, or the "Episode of Jesus," in which Jesus
Jesus
is described as being the son of Joseph, the son of Pandera
Pandera
(see: Episode of Jesus)
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Nestorius
Nestorius
Nestorius
(/ˌnɛsˈtɔːriəs/; in Greek: Νεστόριος; c. 386 – 450[1]) was Archbishop of Constantinople
Archbishop of Constantinople
(now Istanbul) from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II
Theodosius II
confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
on 22 June. His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos, "Mother of God", for Mary, mother of Jesus, and they were considered by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was truly God
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Francesc Eiximenis
Francesc Eiximenis, OFM (Catalan: [fɾənˈsɛsk əʃiˈmɛnis]) was a Franciscan
Franciscan
Catalan writer who lived in the 14th-century Crown of Aragon. He was possibly one of the more successful medieval Catalan writers, since his works were widely read, copied, published and translated. Therefore, it can be said that both in the literary and in the political sphere he had a lot of influence
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) —— Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
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Ascension Of Jesus Christ
Portals: Christianity
Christianity
Bible  Book:Life of Jesusv t eAccording to the Bible, the Ascension of Jesus
Jesus
(anglicized from the
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Yahweh
Yahweh
Yahweh
(/ˈjɑːhweɪ/, or often /ˈjɑːweɪ/ in English; Hebrew: יַהְוֶה‬ [jahˈweh]) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.[3] His exact origins are disputed, although they reach back to the early Iron Age
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Apocryphal Gospels
The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives
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Celsus
Celsus
Celsus
(/ˈkɛlsəs/; Greek: Κέλσος. Kélsos) was a 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of Early Christianity.[1] He is known for his literary work, On The True Doctrine (or Discourse, Account, Word; Greek: Λόγος Ἀληθής, Logos Alēthēs),[2][3] which survives exclusively in quotations from it in Contra Celsum, a refutation written in 248 by Origen
Origen
of Alexandria. On The True Doctrine is the earliest known comprehensive criticism of Christianity. It was written c. 175[4] to 177,[5] shortly after the death of Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
(who was possibly the first Christian apologist), and was probably a response to his work.[4]Contents1 Work 2 References 3 Sources 4 Further reading 5 External linksWork[edit] Celsus
Celsus
was the author of a work titled On The True Doctrine (Logos Alēthēs)
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Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
Martyr
(Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos
Logos
in the 2nd century.[2] He was martyred, alongside some of his students, and is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church,[3] the Anglican Church,[4] the Eastern Orthodox Church,[5] and the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Most of his works are lost, but two apologies and a dialogue did survive. The First Apology, his most well known text, passionately defends the morality of the Christian life, and provides various ethical and philosophical arguments to convince the Roman emperor, Antoninus, to abandon the persecution of the fledgling sect
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Dialogue With Trypho
The Dialogue with Trypho, along with the First and Second Apologies, is a second-century Christian apologetic text, documenting the attempts by theologian Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
to show that Christianity
Christianity
is the new law for all men, and to prove from Scripture that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah.[1] The Dialogue utilizes the literary device of an intellectual conversation between Justin and Trypho, a Jew
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Samuel Friedrich Brenz
Samuel Friedrich Brenz (born in Osterburg, Bavaria, in the latter half of the sixteenth century; date and place of death unknown) was an anti-Jewish writer. He was converted to Christianity in 1601 in Feuchtwangen, and wrote Jüdischer Abgestreifter Schlangenbalg (The Jewish Serpent's Skin Stripped), in which he bitterly attacked his former coreligionists, whom he accused of hating "the most pious and innocent Jew, Jesus Christ," and in which he denounced their religious literature. This book, divided into seven chapters, appeared at Nuremberg in 1614, 1680, and 1715. Solomon Ẓebi Hirsch of Aufhausen wrote a response in Yiddish, Yudisher teryak (The Jewish Antidote; Hanau, 1615), countering Brenz' accusations. He had it printed also in German and in Hebrew for the use of Christians as well as Jews
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Rabbinic Literature
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (Hebrew: ספרות חז"ל‎ "Literature [of our] sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew: מדרש‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Martin Luther
Martin Luther, O.S.A. (/ˈluːθər/;[1] German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( listen); 10 November 1483[2] – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk,[3] and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
of 1517
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Vom Schem Hamphoras
Vom Schem Hamphoras, full title: Vom Schem Hamphoras
Vom Schem Hamphoras
und vom Geschlecht Christi (Of the Unknowable Name and the Generations of Christ), was a book written by German Reformation
Reformation
leader Martin Luther in 1543, in which he equated Jews
Jews
with the Devil and described them in vile language. Schem Hamphoras is the Hebrew rabbinic name for the ineffable name of God, the tetragrammaton. Luther's use of the term was in itself a taunt and insult to Jewish sensitivities. He wrote the 125-page text several months after publishing On the Jews
Jews
and Their Lies. In Hamphoras (pp
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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