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Tobin Tax
A Tobin tax, suggested by Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences Laureate economist James Tobin, was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another. Tobin's original tax was intended to put a penalty on short-term financial round-trip excursions into another currency. By the late 1990s, however, the term Tobin tax
Tobin tax
was being incorrectly used to describe all forms of short term transaction taxation, whether across currencies or not – another term for these broader tax schemes is Robin Hood tax
Robin Hood tax
due to tax revenues from the (presumably richer) speculator funding general revenue (of whom the primary beneficiaries are poorer)
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Tax Deduction
Tax
Tax
deduction is a reduction of income that is able to be taxed and is commonly a result of expenses, particularly those incurred to produce additional income
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Revenue Stamp
A revenue stamp, tax stamp or fiscal stamp is a (usually) adhesive label used to collect taxes or fees on documents, tobacco, alcoholic drinks, drugs and medicines, playing cards, hunting licenses, firearm registration, and many other things. Typically businesses purchase the stamps from the government, and attach them to taxed items as part of putting the items on sale, or in the case of documents, as part of filling out the form. Revenue stamps often look very similar to postage stamps, and in some countries and time periods it has been possible to use postage stamps for revenue purposes.Contents1 Description 2 History 3 Methods of cancellation 4 Collecting 5 Some types of revenue stamps5.1 Court fees 5.2 Documents 5.3 Tobacco and alcohol6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 Revenue philatelic societies 11 External linksDescription[edit]An 1899 passport tax stamp from Cundinamarca in ColombiaRevenue stamps are stamps used to collect taxes and fees
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Tax Collection
A tax collector or a taxman is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. Tax
Tax
collectors are often portrayed in fiction as being evil, and in the modern world share a similar stereotype to that of lawyers.[citation needed]Contents1 Historical tax collectors1.1 Tax
Tax
collectors in the Bible 1.2 Other historical tax collectors2 Modern tax collection agencies 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistorical tax collectors[edit] Tax
Tax
collectors in the Bible[edit] Tax
Tax
collectors, also known as publicans, are mentioned many times in the Bible (mainly in the New Testament). They were reviled by the Jews of Jesus' day because of their perceived greed and collaboration with the Roman occupiers. Tax
Tax
collectors amassed personal wealth by demanding tax payments in excess of what Rome levied and keeping the difference.[1] They worked for tax farmers
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Tax Shift
Tax
Tax
shift or Tax
Tax
swap is a change in taxation that eliminates or reduces
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Tax Residence
The criteria for residence for tax purposes vary considerably from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and "residence" can be different for other, non-tax purposes. For individuals, physical presence in a jurisdiction is the main test. Some jurisdictions also determine residency of an individual by reference to a variety of other factors, such as the ownership of a home or availability of accommodation, family, and financial interests. For companies, some jurisdictions determine the residence of a corporation based on its place of incorporation. Other jurisdictions determine the residence of a corporation by reference to its place of management. Some jurisdictions use both a place-of-incorporation test and a place-of-management test. Domicile is, in common law jurisdictions, a different legal concept to residence, though the two may lead to the same result. The criteria for residence in double taxation treaties may be different from those of domestic law
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Tax Preparation
Tax
Tax
preparation is the process of preparing tax returns, often income tax returns, often for a person other than the taxpayer, and generally for compensation. Tax
Tax
preparation may be done by the taxpayer with or without the help of tax preparation software and online services. Tax preparation may also be done by a licensed professional such as an attorney, certified public accountant or enrolled agent, or by an unlicensed tax preparation business. Because United States income tax laws are considered to be complicated, many taxpayers seek outside assistance with taxes (59.2% of individual tax returns in 2007 were filed by paid preparers).[1] The remainder of this article describes tax preparation by someone other than the taxpayer. Some states have licensing requirements for anyone who prepares tax returns for a fee and some for fee-based preparation of state tax returns only
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Tax Investigation
If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
has a definition already, change this tag to TWCleanup2 or else consider a soft redirect to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing the text on this page with Wi . If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
does not have the definition yet, consider moving the whole article to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing this tag with the template Copy to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
. This template will no longer automatically categorize articles as candidates to move to Wiktionary.For American Tax
Tax
Investigations, see Income tax audit. Tax
Tax
investigation is an in-depth investigation processed by a tax authority in order to recover tax undercharged in previous years of assessment. This is the general term in commonwealth countries. It is carried out when a taxpayer is suspected of tax evasion, or just by random sampling
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Taxable Income
Taxable income refers to the base upon which an income tax system imposes tax.[1] Generally, it includes some or all items of income and is reduced by expenses and other deductions.[2] The amounts included as income, expenses, and other deductions vary by country or system. Many systems provide that some types of income are not taxable (sometimes called non-assessable income) and some expenditures not deductible in computing taxable income.[3] Some systems base tax on taxable income of the current period, and some on prior periods. Taxable income may refer to the income of any taxpayer, including individuals and corporations, as well as entities that themselves do not pay tax, such as partnerships, in which case it may be called “net profit”. Most systems require that all income realized (or derived) be included in taxable income
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Privatized Tax Collection
Privatized tax collection occurs wherever the state passes on its obligation to collect taxes to private companies or firms in return for a fixed or ad valorem fee. This contrasts with tax farming where a private individual or organization pays off a pre-determined tax debt, and then subsequently recoups that payment by collecting money from the people within a certain area or business. A modern example of a variation of tax farming is the United States IRS outsourcing of the collection of taxpayers' debts to private debt collection agencies from September 2006. Opponents to this change note that the IRS will be handing over personal information to these debt collection agencies, who are being paid between twenty-two and twenty-four percent of the amount collected. Opponents are also worried about the agencies being paid on percent collected because it will encourage the collectors to use pressure tactics to collect the maximum amount
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Non-tax Revenue
Non-tax revenue
Non-tax revenue
or non-tax receipts are government revenue not generated from taxes. Examples[edit]Aid from another level of government (intragovernmental aid): in the United States, federal grants may be considered non-tax revenue to the receiving states, and equalization payments Aid from abroad (foreign aid) Tribute or indemnities paid by a weaker state to a stronger one, often as a condition of peace after suffering military defeat
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Tax Farming
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered. It is most commonly used in the field of public finance, where the state wishes to gain some certainty about its future taxation revenue for the purposes of medium-term budgetting of expenditure. The tax collection process requires considerable expenditure on administration and the yield is uncertain both as to amount and timing, as taxpayers delay or default on their assessed obligations, often the result of unforeseen external forces such as bad weather affecting harvests
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Government Revenue
Government
Government
revenue is money received by a government. It is an important tool of the fiscal policy of the government and is the opposite factor of government spending. Revenues earned by the government are received from sources such as taxes levied on the incomes and wealth accumulation of individuals and corporations and on the goods and services produced, exports and imports, non-taxable sources such as government-owned corporations' incomes, central bank revenue and capital receipts in the form of external loans and debts from international financial institutions. It is used to benefit the country. Governments use revenue to better develop the country, to fix roads, build homes, fix schools etc. The money that government collects pays for the services that is provided for the people
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Fiscal Policy
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy. According to Keynesian economics, when the government changes the levels of taxation and government spending, it influences aggregate demand and the level of economic activity
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Tax Avoidance
Tax
Tax
avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. Tax
Tax
sheltering is very similar, although unlike tax avoidance tax sheltering is not necessarily legal. Tax
Tax
havens are jurisdictions which facilitate reduced taxes.[1] While forms of tax avoidance which use tax laws in ways not intended by governments may be considered legal, it is almost never considered moral in the court of public opinion and rarely in journalism. Many corporations and businesses which take part in the practice experience a backlash, either from their active customers or online
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