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Titicaca
LAKE TITICACA (Spanish : Lago Titicaca, Quechua : Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes
Andes
on the border of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru
Peru
. By volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South America . Lake
Lake
Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is a tidal bay , not a lake. It is often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world, with a surface elevation of 3,812 metres (12,507 ft). Although this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2,200-ton, 79-metre (259 ft) SS Ollanta
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Spanish Language
The SPANISH LANGUAGE (/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen ); Español (help ·info )), also called the CASTILIAN LANGUAGE (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Quechua Language
QUECHUA (/ˈkɛtʃuə/ , in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/ ) , known as RUNASIMI ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family , with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples , primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America . Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas , with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire . The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it. However, Quechua ultimately survived , and variants are still widely spoken today
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Coastline Paradox
The COASTLINE PARADOX is the counterintuitive observation that the coastline of a landmass does not have a well-defined length. This results from the fractal -like properties of coastlines. The first recorded observation of this phenomenon was by Lewis Fry Richardson and it was expanded by Benoit Mandelbrot . More concretely, the length of the coastline depends on the method used to measure it. Since a landmass has features at all scales, from hundreds of kilometres in size to tiny fractions of a millimetre and below, there is no obvious size of the smallest feature that should be measured around, and hence no single well-defined perimeter to the landmass. Various approximations exist when specific assumptions are made about minimum feature size
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Water Balance
In hydrology , a WATER BALANCE equation can be used to describe the flow of water in and out of a system. A system can be one of several hydrological domains, such as a column of soil or a drainage basin . Water balance
Water balance
can also refer to the ways in which an organism maintains water in dry or hot conditions. It is often discussed in reference to plants or arthropods, which have a variety of water retention mechanisms, including a lipid waxy coating that has limited permeability
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Lead
LEAD is a chemical element with symbol PB (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials; it is soft, malleable , and melts at a relatively low temperature. When freshly cut, it has a bluish-white tint; it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air. Lead
Lead
has the second-highest atomic number of the classically stable elements and lies at the end of three major decay chains of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal . Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature (lead and lead oxides react with both acids and bases) and tendency to form covalent bonds . Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state, rather than the +4 common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Lake Maracaibo
LAKE MARACAIBO (Spanish : Lago de Maracaibo) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary ) in Venezuela and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea ." It is sometimes considered a lake rather than a bay or lagoon . It is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by Tablazo Strait which is 5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi) wide at the northern end. It is fed by numerous rivers, the largest being the Catatumbo . At 13,210 square kilometres (5,100 sq mi) it was once the largest lake in South America; the geological record shows that it has been a true lake in the past, and as such is one of the oldest lakes on Earth at 20–36 million years old. Lake Maracaibo acts as a major shipping route to the ports of Maracaibo and Cabimas . The surrounding Maracaibo Basin contains large reserves of crude oil , making the lake a major profit center for Venezuela
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Bay
A BAY is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean , lake , or another bay. A large bay may be called a gulf , sea , sound , or bight . A cove is a type of smaller bay with a circular inlet and narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity. Bays can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay , an estuary of the Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
. Bays may also be nested within each other; for example, James Bay
James Bay
is an arm of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
in northeastern Canada. Some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology . The land surrounding a bay often reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves
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Evapotranspiration
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere . Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil , canopy interception , and waterbodies . Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves . Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
is an important part of the water cycle . An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an EVAPOTRANSPIRATOR. REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET0), sometimes incorrectly referred to as potential ET, is a representation of the environmental demand for evapotranspiration and represents the evapotranspiration rate of a short green crop (grass), completely shading the ground, of uniform height and with adequate water status in the soil profile
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River
A RIVER is a natural flowing watercourse , usually freshwater , flowing towards an ocean , sea , lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream , creek, brook, rivulet, and rill . There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features , although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn " in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Water Pollution
WATER POLLUTION is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans , aquifers and groundwater ). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water
Water
pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water . In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities
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Introduced Species
An INTRODUCED SPECIES (ALIEN SPECIES, EXOTIC SPECIES, NON-INDIGENOUS SPECIES, or NON-NATIVE SPECIES) is a species living outside its native distributional range , which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species . The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example. In some instances the potential for being beneficial or detrimental in the long run remains unknown
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Ramsar Site
A RAMSAR SITE is a wetland site designated of international importance under the RAMSAR CONVENTION . The Convention on Wetlands, known as the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental environmental treaty established in 1971 by UNESCO
UNESCO
, and coming into force in 1975. It provides for national action and international cooperation regarding the conservation of wetlands, and wise sustainable use of their resources. Ramsar identifies wetlands of international importance, especially those providing waterfowl habitat . In 2016 there are 2,231 Ramsar Sites, protecting 214,936,005 hectares (531,118,440 acres). 169 national governments are currently participating
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Ramsar Convention
English, French and Spanish www.ramsar.org The RAMSAR CONVENTION on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands . It is also known as the CONVENTION ON WETLANDS. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran
Iran
, where the Convention was signed in 1971. Every three years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the policy-making organ of the Convention which adopts decisions (Resolutions and Recommendations) to administer the work of the Convention and improve the way in which the Parties are able to implement its objectives. The most recent COP12 was held in Punta del Este , Uruguay
Uruguay
, in 2015. COP13 will take place in Dubai
Dubai
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, in 2018
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Discharge (hydrology)
In hydrology , DISCHARGE is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area. It includes any suspended solids (e.g. sediment), dissolved chemicals (e.g. CaCO3(aq)), or biologic material (e.g. diatoms) in addition to the water itself. Synonyms vary by discipline, for example, a fluvial hydrologist studying natural river systems may define discharge as streamflow , whereas an engineer operating a reservoir system might define discharge as OUTFLOW, which is contrasted with inflow . CONTENTS * 1 Theory and calculation * 2 Catchment discharge * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links THEORY AND CALCULATION GH Dury and MJ Bradshaw are two hydrologists who devised the models showing the relationship between discharge and other variables in a river
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Mountain
A MOUNTAIN is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill . Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism . These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers , weather conditions , and glaciers . A few mountains are isolated summits , but most occur in huge mountain ranges . High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level . These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals . Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing
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