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Titicaca
Lake
Lake
Titicaca (Spanish: Lago Titicaca, Quechua: Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes
Andes
on the border of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru. By volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South America.[2][3][4] Lake
Lake
Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is a tidal bay, not a lake. It is often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world, with a surface elevation of 3,812 metres (12,507 ft).[5][6] Although this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2,200-ton, 79-metre (259 ft) SS Ollanta
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Neotropical Silversides
The Neotropical silversides are a family, Atherinopsidae, of fishes in the order Atheriniformes. About 104 species in 13 genera are distributed throughout the tropical and temperate waters of the New World, including both marine and freshwater habitats. The familiar grunions and Atlantic silverside
Atlantic silverside
belong to this family. References[edit]Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Atherinopsidae" in FishBase. June 2012 version.External links[edit] Menidia
Menidia
beryllina Photo and Information at MBL AquacultureTaxon identifiersWd: Q1542717 ADW: Atherinopsidae EoL: 8276 Fauna Europaea: 304294 Fossilworks: 266171 GBIF: 2957 ITIS: 630579 NCBI: 461499 WoRMS: 266995This Atheriniformes
Atheriniformes
article is a stub
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River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features,[1] although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek,[2] but not always: the language is vague.[3] Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Bay
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, lake, or another bay.[1][2][3] A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with a circular inlet and narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity. Bays can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River.[2] Bays may also be nested within each other; for example, James Bay
James Bay
is an arm of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
in northeastern Canada. Some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay often reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing
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Lake Maracaibo
Lake
Lake
Maracaibo
Maracaibo
(Spanish: Lago de Maracaibo) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary) in Venezuela
Venezuela
and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea."[1][2][3][4] It is sometimes considered a lake rather than a bay or lagoon.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] It is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela
Venezuela
by Tablazo Strait which is 5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi) wide at the northern end. It is fed by numerous rivers, the largest being the Catatumbo. At 13,210 square kilometres (5,100 sq mi) it was once the largest lake in South America; the geological record shows that it has been a true lake in the past, and as such is one of the oldest lakes on Earth at 20–36 million years old.[14][15] Lake
Lake
Maracaibo
Maracaibo
acts as a major shipping route to the ports of Maracaibo
Maracaibo
and Cabimas
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Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
(ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere. Evaporation
Evaporation
accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration
Transpiration
accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
is an important part of the water cycle. An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.[1] Potential evapotranspiration (PET), is a representation of the environmental demand for evapotranspiration and represents the evapotranspiration rate of a short green crop (grass), completely shading the ground, of uniform height and with adequate water status in the soil profile
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Quechua Language
Quechua (/ˈkɛtʃuə/, in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/)[2], known as Runasimi ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America.[3] Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers.[4] Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua.[5][6] It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire. The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Coastline Paradox
The coastline paradox is the counterintuitive observation that the coastline of a landmass does not have a well-defined length. This results from the fractal-like properties of coastlines, i.e. the fact that a coastline typically has a fractal dimension (which in fact makes the notion of length inapplicable). The first recorded observation of this phenomenon was by Lewis Fry Richardson[1] and it was expanded by Benoit Mandelbrot.[2] The measured length of the coastline depends on the method used to measure it. Since a landmass has features at all scales, from hundreds of kilometers in size to tiny fractions of a millimeter and below, there is no obvious size of the smallest feature that should be measured around, and hence no single well-defined perimeter to the landmass
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Ramsar Convention
English, French and Spanish www.ramsar.orgThe Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.[1] It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands
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Water Pollution
Water
Water
pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater), usually as a result of human activities. Water
Water
pollution is one of many types of pollution which results from contaminants being introduced into the natural environment. Pollution
Pollution
causes adverse change. Water
Water
pollution is often caused by the discharge of inadequately treated wastewater into natural bodies of water. This can lead to environmental degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems. For example, people living downstream may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water
Water
pollution affects the entire biosphere of plants and organisms living in these water bodies, as well as organisms and plants that might be exposed to the water
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Introduced Species
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species. The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example
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Lead
Lead
Lead
is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead
Lead
is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead
Lead
has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead
Compounds of lead
are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Ramsar Site
A Ramsar Site is a wetland site designated of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. [1] The Convention on Wetlands, known as the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental environmental treaty established in 1971 by UNESCO, and coming into force in 1975. It provides for national action and international cooperation regarding the conservation of wetlands, and wise sustainable use of their resources. [1] Ramsar identifies wetlands of international importance, especially those providing waterfowl habitat. In 2016 there are 2,231 Ramsar Sites, protecting 214,936,005 hectares (531,118,440 acres). 169 national governments are currently participating
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Drainage Basin
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water
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Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase.[1] The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will "escape" and enter the surrounding air as a gas.[2] When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.[3] On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is the equal to its condensation
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