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Titanichthys
Brontichthys TITANICHTHYS is a genus of giant, aberrant marine placoderm from shallow seas of the Late Devonian
Devonian
of Morocco
Morocco
, Eastern North America, and possibly Europe. Many of the species approached Dunkleosteus in size and build. Unlike its relative, however, the various species of Titanichys had small, ineffective-looking mouth-plates that lacked a sharp cutting edge. It is assumed that Titanichthys
Titanichthys
was a filter feeder that used its capacious mouth to swallow or inhale schools of small, anchovy -like fish, or possibly krill -like zooplankton , and that the mouth-plates retained the prey while allowing the water to escape as it closed its mouth. CONTENTS* 1 Species * 1.1 T. agassizi * 1.2 T. attenuatus * 1.3 T. clarkii * 1.4 T. hussakofi * 1.5 T. rectus * 1.6 T. kozlowskii * 1.7 T
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Anchovy
An ANCHOVY is a small, common salt-water forage fish of the family ENGRAULIDAE. The 144 species are placed in 17 genera; they are found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, and in the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. Anchovies are usually classified as oily fish
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Krill
KRILL are small crustaceans of the order EUPHAUSIACEA, and are found in all the world's oceans. The name krill comes from the Norwegian word krill, meaning "small fry of fish", which is also often attributed to species of fish. Krill
Krill
are considered an important trophic level connection – near the bottom of the food chain – because they feed on phytoplankton and (to a lesser extent) zooplankton , converting these into a form suitable for many larger animals for whom krill makes up the largest part of their diet. In the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
, one species, the Antarctic krill , Euphausia superba, makes up an estimated biomass of around 379,000,000 tonnes, making it among the species with the largest total biomass
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Filter Feeder
FILTER FEEDERS are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams , krill , sponges , baleen whales , and many fish (including some sharks ). Some birds, such as flamingos and certain species of duck , are also filter feeders. Filter feeders can play an important role in clarifying water, and are therefore considered ecosystem engineers . CONTENTS * 1 Fish
Fish
* 2 Crustaceans * 3 Baleen
Baleen
whales * 4 Bivalves * 5 Sponges * 6 Cnidarians * 7 Flamingos * 8 Pterosaurs * 9 Marine reptiles * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links FISH See also: Forage fish Most forage fish are filter feeders
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Famennian
The FAMENNIAN is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch. It lasted from 372.2 million years ago to 358.9 million years ago. It was preceded by the Frasnian stage and followed by the Tournaisian stage. It was during this age that tetrapods first appeared. In the seas, a novel major group of ammonoid cephalopods called clymeniids appeared, underwent tremendous diversification and spread worldwide, then just as suddenly went extinct . The beginning of the Famennian is marked by a major extinction event , the Kellwasser Event , and the end with a smaller but still quite severe extinction event, the Hangenberg Event . North American subdivisions of the Famennian include the Chautauquan, Canadaway, Conneaut, Conneautan, Conewango and Conewangan
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Morocco
Coordinates : 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6 Kingdom of Morocco * المملكة المغربية ( Arabic
Arabic
) * ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لله، الوطن، الملك (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber ) "God, Homeland, King" ANTHEM: النشيد الوطني المغربي (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)
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Zooplankton
ZOOPLANKTON (pronounced in several different ways, including /ˈzoʊəˌplæŋktən, ˈzuːəˌ-, ˈzoʊoʊˌ-, ˈzuːˌ-, -ˌplæŋtən/ or /ˌzoʊəˈplæŋktən, -ˌtɒn/ . ) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous ) plankton . Plankton
Plankton
are organisms drifting in oceans , seas , and bodies of fresh water . The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic , but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible with the naked eye. CONTENTS * 1 Ecology
Ecology
* 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ECOLOGY A copepod ( Calanoida sp.) A jellyfish (Aequorea victoria ) Zooplankton
Zooplankton
is a categorization spanning a range of organism sizes including small protozoans and large metazoans
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Cleveland Shale
The CLEVELAND SHALE is a geologic formation in Ohio
Ohio
. It preserves fossils dating back to the Devonian
Devonian
period . SEE ALSO * Earth sciences portal * Ohio
Ohio
portal * Paleontology portal * Devonian
Devonian
portal * Paleozoic portal * List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Ohio
Ohio
REFERENCES * Various Contributors to the Paleobiology Database. "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". Archived from the original on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014. This article about a specific stratigraphic formation in Ohio
Ohio
is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Dinosaur
DINOSAURS are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade DINOSAURIA. They first appeared during the Triassic
Triassic
period, between 243 and 231 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods. The fossil record indicates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs , having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic
Jurassic
Period. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago
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Dunkleosteidae
DUNKLEOSTEIDAE is an extinct family of arthrodire placoderms . The gigantic apex predator Dunkleosteus terrelli is the best known member of this group. While they were previously thought to be close relatives of the genus Dinichthys (when they were not synonymized as each other) and grouped together in the family Dinichthyidae , more recent studies have shown that the two taxa represent two very distinct clades within Arthrodira. The reappraisal of Kiangyousteus lead to a restructuring of the family, with the inclusions of the benthic, aberrant Heterosteus (and the other members of Heterosteidae) as the sister taxon of Dunkleosteus , and the Late Emsian Xiangshuiosteus as the sister taxon of Eastmanosteus calliaspis (with the direct implication that E
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Bruntonichthys
BRUNTONICHTHYS is an arthrodire placoderm from the Gogo Reef Formation . It was a small fish, having proportionately huge eyes, and small jaws. Researchers suggest it may have preyed on small mollusks . REFERENCES * ^ DENNIS, K. and MILES, R. S. (1980), New durophagous arthrodires from Gogo, Western Australia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 69: 43–85. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1980.tb01932.x * Paleontology portal * v * t * e Dunkleosteidae
Dunkleosteidae
* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Placodermi
Placodermi
* Order: Arthrodira
Arthrodira
* Superfamily: Dunkleosteoidea GENERA * Dunkleosteus * Eastmanosteus * Golshanichthys * Hussakofia * Xiangshuiosteus * Kiangyousteus * Heterosteus * Herasmius * Yinosteus This article about a placoderm is a stub
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Holy Cross Mountains
The ŚWIęTOKRZYSKIE MOUNTAINS (Polish : Góry Świętokrzyskie, IPA: ( listen ), Holy Cross Mountains) are a mountain range in central Poland
Poland
, near the city of Kielce
Kielce
. The Świętokrzyskie Mountains are some of the oldest mountains in Europe, and the highest between the Sudetes
Sudetes
and the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
. The mountain range comprises several lesser ranges, the highest of which is Łysogóry (literally "Bald Mountains"). The two highest peaks are Łysica , 612 m (2008 ft), and Łysa Góra , 593 m (1946 ft). Together with the Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska , the mountains form a region called the Lesser- Poland
Poland
Upland (Wyżyna Małopolska). They cover an area of 1684 km² (650 mi²). The approximate location is 50°53′N 20°55′E / 50.883°N 20.917°E / 50.883; 20.917
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Devonian
The DEVONIAN is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic , spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian
Silurian
, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous , 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon
Devon
, England
England
, where rocks from this period were first studied. The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land , forming extensive forests which covered the continents . By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established
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Mikko's Phylogeny Archive
MIKKO\'S PHYLOGENY ARCHIVE is an amateur paleontology website maintained by Mikko Haaramo, a student at the University of Helsinki 's Department of Geology, Division of Geology and Palaeontology. The project is aimed at collecting phylogenetic trees of all organisms. Each page presents a cladogram that is hyperlinked to its parent and daughter cladograms, plus a section for references. Taxa of uncertain relationship are indicated by a question mark. No indication is given for what part of the cladogram is based on which specific references. The site was originally simply named "Life as We Know It", and with the Dinosauricon it was the first web-site to use an ascii text-based format for showing cladograms. Although the Archive has been hosted by the Finnish Museum of the Natural History and now the University of Helsinki 's servers, the museum has no formal affiliation with it
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International Standard Book Number (identifier)
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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