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Tighina
Bender[4] ([benˈder]; de facto official name Bendery
Bendery
(Russian: Бендеры, [bʲɪnˈdɛrɨ]); also known by other alternative names) is a city within the internationally recognized borders of Moldova
Moldova
under de facto control of the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) (PMR) since 1992. It is located on the right (western) bank of the river Dniester
Dniester
in the historical region of Bessarabia. Together with its suburb Proteagailovca, the city forms a municipality, which is separate from Transnistria
Transnistria
(as an administrative unit of Moldova) according to the Moldovan law
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Vâlcea County
Vâlcea (also spelt Vîlcea; Romanian pronunciation: [ˈvɨlt͡ʃe̯a]) is a county (județ) of Romania. Located in the historical regions of Oltenia
Oltenia
and Muntenia (which are separated by the Olt River), it is also part of the wider Wallachia
Wallachia
region
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Tatars
The Tatars
Tatars
(Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are a Turkic people[4] living mainly in Russia
Russia
and other Post-Soviet countries. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic[4] languages. The Mongol
Mongol
Empire, established under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols
Mongols
moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol
Mongol
tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Moldavian SSR
"Молдова Советикэ" (" Moldova
Moldova
Sovietică") (1980-1991)Location of the Moldavian SSR
Moldavian SSR
within the Soviet Union.Capital KishinevLanguages Official langua
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Moldovan Language
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language
Romanian language
in the Republic of Moldova,[1][2] prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution;[3] the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova
Moldova
and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian". At the official level, the Constitutional Court interpreted in 2013 that the Article 13 of the current constitution is superseded by the Declaration of Independence,[4] thus giving official status to the language named as 'Romanian.'[5][6] The language of the Moldovans
Moldovans
has been historically identified by both terms, with "Moldovan" being the only one allowed in official use during the years of domination by the Soviet Union, in the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
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Moldovan Cyrillic Alphabet
The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet
Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet
is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the "Moldovan language" in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was in official use from 1924 to 1932 and 1938 to 1989 (and still in use today in the Moldovan region of Transnistria).Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Example text 4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 External linksHistory[edit] Until the 19th century, Moldovan/Romanian was usually written using a local variant of the Cyrillic alphabet
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Ukranian Language
Ukrainian /juːˈkreɪniən/ ( listen) (українська мова ukrajinśka mova) is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script (see Ukrainian alphabet). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
to the Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus'. After the fall of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language
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Voivode
Voivode[1] (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/) (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans. The title voevodas (Greek: βοεβόδας) was first used in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
De Administrando Imperio to identify Hungarian military leaders.[2] In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Alexander The Good
Alexander the Good (Romanian: Alexandru cel Bun pronounced [alekˈsandru t͡ʃel bun] or Alexandru I Mușat) was a Voivode
Voivode
(Prince) of Moldavia, reigning between 1400 and 1432,[1] son of Roman I Mușat
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Lviv
Lviv
Lviv
(Ukrainian: Львів [lʲʋiu̯] ( listen); Russian: Львов Lvov; Polish: Lwów[2] [lvuf] ( listen); German: Lemberg; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv
Lviv
is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Named in honor of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
(also called Kingdom of Rus')[3] from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
who then became known as the King of Poland
Poland
and Rus'. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland
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Crimea
Crimea
Crimea
(/kraɪˈmiːə/; Ukrainian: Крим, Krym; Russian: Крым, Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, translit. Qırım; Turkish: Kırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit. Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the smaller Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson
Kherson
and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson
Kherson
Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
and is separated from Kuban
Kuban
by the Strait of Kerch
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Fort
Fortifications are military constructions, or buildings, designed for the defense of territories in warfare and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. For many thousands of years, humans have constructed defensive works in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae
Mycenae
(famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls)
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Ottoman Dynasty
The Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
(Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman
House of Osman
(Ottoman Turkish: خاندان آل عثمان‎ Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān). Also known as the Ottomans (Turkish: Osmanlılar). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe[nb 1] branch of the Oghuz Turks,[2] under Osman I
Osman I
in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the district of Bilecik
Bilecik
Söğüt. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from c
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Suleiman The Magnificent
Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سلطان سليمان اول‎ Sultan Süleyman-ı Evvel; Turkish: Birinci Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman;[3] 6 November 1494 – 6 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in the West and Kanunî Sultan
Sultan
Süleyman (Ottoman Turkish: قانونى سلطان سليمان‎‎; "The Lawgiver Suleiman") in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
from 1520 until his death in 1566.[4] Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over 15 to 25 million people. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's economic, military and political power
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