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Thrall
A THRALL ( Old Norse
Old Norse
/Icelandic : þræll, Norwegian : trell, Danish : træl, Swedish : träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age . The corresponding term in Old English
Old English
was þēOW. The status of slave (þræll, þēow ) contrasts with that of the freeman (karl, ceorl) and the nobleman (jarl , eorl ). The Middle Latin rendition of the term in early Germanic law is servus. The social system of serfdom is continued in medieval feudalism . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Early Germanic law * 3 Society * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGY Look up THRALL in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Pronunciation of the term in US English Thrall
Thrall
is from the Old Norse
Old Norse
þræll, meaning a person who is in bondage or serfdom
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Impressment
IMPRESSMENT, colloquially, "THE PRESS" or the "PRESS GANG", refers to the act of taking men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Navies of several nations used forced recruitment by various means. The large size of the British Royal Navy in the Age of Sail
Age of Sail
meant impressment was most commonly associated with Britain. It was used by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in wartime, beginning in 1664 and during the 18th and early 19th centuries as a means of crewing warships , although legal sanction for the practice goes back to the time of Edward I of England
Edward I of England
. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
impressed many merchant sailors, as well as some sailors from other nations. People liable to impressment were "eligible men of seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 55 years". Non-seamen were impressed as well, though rarely
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Mamluk
MAMLUK (Arabic : مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to Muslim slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin
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Conscription
Military service National service Conscription crisis Conscientious objector
Conscientious objector
Alternative civilian service CONSCRIPTION BY COUNTRY * v * t * e CONSCRIPTION, or DRAFTING, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service , most often a military service . Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution
French Revolution
in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military . Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force
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Penal Labour
PENAL LABOUR is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour . The work may be light or hard, depending on the context. Forms of sentence involving penal labour have included INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, PENAL SERVITUDE and IMPRISONMENT WITH HARD LABOUR. The term may refer to several related scenarios: labour as a form of punishment, the prison system used as a means to secure labour, and labour as providing occupation for convicts. These scenarios can be applied to those imprisoned for political, religious, war, or other reasons as well as to criminal convicts. Large-scale implementations of penal labour include labour camps , prison farms , penal colonies , penal military units , penal transportation , or aboard prison ships
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Slave Coast
The SLAVE COAST is a historical name formerly used for parts of coastal West Africa
West Africa
along the Bight of Benin
Bight of Benin
. The name is derived from the fact that it was a major source of African slaves during the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
from the early 16th century to the 19th century. Other nearby coastal regions historically known by their prime colonial export are the Gold Coast , the Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
, and the Pepper Coast (or Grain Coast). HISTORYAccording to most research, the beginnings of the slave trade in this area are not well documented. It is difficult to track the development of trade in this area and its integration into the trans-Atlantic slave trade before about 1670, when European sources begin to document this trade
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Child Labour
CHILD LABOUR refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations . Legislation across the world prohibit child labour. These laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, certain categories of work such as those by Amish
Amish
children, some forms of child work common among indigenous American children, and others
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Kholop
A KHOLOP (Russian : холо́п; IPA: ) was a feudally dependent person in Russia
Russia
between the 10th and early 18th centuries. Their legal status was close to that of serfs . ETYMOLOGYThe word kholop was first mentioned in a chronicle for the year of 986. Its etymology is unclear. By one hypothesis, the word is cognate with Slavic words translated as "boy" (more specifically, adolescent male; modern Ukrainian: хлопець (khlopets), Polish : chlopak, Bulgarian : хлапе/хлапак), which is similar to the use of the English word boy as "servant ". The Slavic word itself is derived from the hypothetical root *chol related to premarital state, unmarriedness, inability for reproduction. By another hypothesis, it is derived from a Germanic root, represented in English by the word "help". KHOLOPSThe Russkaya Pravda , a legal code of the late Kievan Rus , details the status and types of kholops of the time
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Panyarring
PANYARRING was the practice of seizing and holding persons until the repayment of debt or resolution of a dispute which became a common activity along the Atlantic coast of Africa
Africa
in the 18th and 19th centuries. The practice developed from pawnship, a common practice in West Africa
Africa
where members of a family borrowing money would be pledged as collateral to the family providing credit until the repayment of the debt. Panyarring
Panyarring
though is different from this practice as it involves the forced seizure of persons when a debt was not repaid
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History Of Serfdom
Like slavery , SERFDOM HAS A LONG HISTORY, dating to the Ancient Times . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Heyday * 3 The decline of serfdom * 3.1 Era of the French Revolution
French Revolution
* 3.2 Russia * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading ORIGINSSocial institutions similar to serfdom occurred in the ancient world. The status of the helots in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta resembled that of medieval serfs. By the 3rd century AD, the Roman Empire faced a labour shortage. Large Roman landowners increasingly relied on Roman freemen, acting as tenant farmers, (instead of on slaves) to provide labour. The status of these tenant farmers, eventually known as coloni , steadily eroded
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House Slave
A HOUSE SLAVE was a slave who worked, and often lived, in the house of the slave-owner. House slaves had many duties such as cooking, cleaning, serving meals, and caring for children
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Coolie
The word COOLIE (also kuli, cooli, cooly, quli and koelie among other spellings), meaning a labourer , has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context. It is similar, in many respects, to the Spanish term peon , although both terms are used in some countries, with slightly differing implications. During the 19th and early 20th century, coolie was usually a term implying an indentured labourer from South Asia
South Asia
, South East Asia or China
China
. It is now a commonly-used and inoffensive word in South Asia
South Asia
for workers in unskilled manual labour, especially porters at railway stations
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Corvée
CORVéE (French: ( listen )) is a form of unpaid, unfree labour , which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year. STATUTE LABOUR is a corvée imposed by a state for the purposes of public works . As such it represents a form of levy (taxation ). Unlike other forms of levy, such as a tithe , a corvée does not require the population to have land, crops or cash. It was thus favored in historical economies in which barter was more common than cash transactions or circulating money is in short supply. The obligation for tenant farmers to perform corvée work for landlords on private landed estates has been widespread throughout history
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Slavery In Angola
SLAVERY IN ANGOLA existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast. A number of those peoples, like the Imbangala and the Mbundu , were active slave traders for centuries (see African slave trade
African slave trade
). In the late 16th century, Kingdom of Portugal 's explorers founded the fortified settlement of Luanda
Luanda
, and later on minor trade posts and forts on the Kwanza River
Kwanza River
as well as on the Atlantic coast southwards until Benguela . The main component of their trading activities consisted in a heavy involvement in the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
. Slave trafficking was abolished in 1836 by the Portuguese authorities
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Field Slaves In The United States
FIELD HANDS were slaves who labored in the plantation fields. They commonly were used to plant, tend, and harvest cotton , sugar , rice , and tobacco
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