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Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal
The Thomas Ranken Lyle
Thomas Ranken Lyle
Medal is awarded at most every two years by the Australian Academy of Science
Australian Academy of Science
to a mathematician or physicist for his or her outstanding research accomplishments.[1] It is named after Thomas Ranken Lyle, an Irish mathematical physicist who became a professor at the University of Melbourne
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Quark
A quark (/kwɔːrk, kwɑːrk/) is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.[1] Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples) and mesons.[2][3] For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves. Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin
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Radio Astronomy
Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky
Karl Jansky
at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, regarded as evidence for the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory, was made through radio astronomy. Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis
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Plasma (physics)
Plasma (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πλάσμα​, meaning 'moldable substance'[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir[2] in the 1920s.[3]. Unlike the other three states, solid, liquid, and gas, plasma does not exist freely on the Earth's surface under normal conditions
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Mathematician
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics
Mathematics
is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, and change.Contents1 History 2 Required education 3 Activities3.1 Applied mathematics 3.2 Abstract mathematics 3.3 Mathematics
Mathematics
teaching 3.4 Consulting4 Occupations 5 Quotations about mathematicians 6 Prizes in mathematics 7 Mathematical autobiographies 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory This section is on the history of mathematicians
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Numerical Integration
In numerical analysis, numerical integration constitutes a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations. This article focuses on calculation of definite integrals. The term numerical quadrature (often abbreviated to quadrature) is more or less a synonym for numerical integration, especially as applied to one-dimensional integrals. Some authors refer to numerical integration over more than one dimension as cubature;[1] others take quadrature to include higher-dimensional integration. The basic problem in numerical integration is to compute an approximate solution to a definite integral ∫ a b f ( x ) d x displaystyle int _ a ^ b f(x),dx to a given degree of accuracy
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Graph Theory
In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of vertices, nodes, or points which are connected by edges, arcs, or lines. A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another; see Graph (discrete mathematics)
Graph (discrete mathematics)
for more detailed definitions and for other variations in the types of graph that are commonly considered
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Theory Of Relativity
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.[1] Special relativity
Special relativity
applies to elementary particles and their interactions, describing all their physical phenomena except gravity. General relativity
General relativity
explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature.[2] It applies to the cosmological and astrophysical realm, including astronomy.[3] The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton.[3][4][5] It introduced concepts including spacetime as a unified entity of space and time, relativity of simultaneity, kinematic and gravitational time dilation, and length contraction
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Kinematics
Kinematics
Kinematics
is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.[1][2][3] Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics.[4][5][6] A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on masses falls within kinetics. For further details, see analytical dynamics. Kinematics
Kinematics
is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies
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Sun
The Sun
Sun
is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma,[14][15] with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, i.e. 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[17] About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.[18] The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star
G-type main-sequence star
(G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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H.O. Lancaster
Henry Oliver Lancaster AO FAA,[1] (1 February 1913, Sydney – 2 December 2001, Sydney), also known as "HOL", was an Australian mathematical statistician and was Foundation Professor of Mathematical Statistics at the University of Sydney. After initial actuarial and accounting studies, his early studies and career were in medicine, particularly in pathology where he employed a strong element of statistical analysis. From 1946 to 1959 he worked in the area of tropical medicine in Sydney and London. From 1959 to 1978 he was Professor of Mathematical Statistics at the University of Sydney, at which time he retired.[2][3][4] References[edit]^ "Officer of the Order of Australia". It's an Honour. 26 January 1992.  "For service to mathematical sciences and to education" ^ E. Seneta; G.K. Eagleson (2004). "Henry Oliver Lancaster 1913–2001" (PDF). Historical Records of Australian Science
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Number Theory
Number
Number
theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. It is sometimes called "The Queen of Mathematics" because of its foundational place in the discipline.[1] Number
Number
theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects made out of integers (e.g., rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (e.g., algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (e.g., the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion (analytic number theory)
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Statistics
Statistics
Statistics
is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.[1][2] In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics
Statistics
deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[1] See glossary of probability and statistics. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole
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Stationary Process
In mathematics and statistics, a stationary process (a.k.a. a strict(ly) stationary process or strong(ly) stationary process) is a stochastic process whose unconditional joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. Consequently, parameters such as mean and variance, if they are present, also do not change over time. Since stationarity is an assumption underlying many statistical procedures used in time series analysis, non-stationary data is often transformed to become stationary. The most common cause of violation of stationarity is a trend in the mean, which can be due either to the presence of a unit root or of a deterministic trend. In the former case of a unit root, stochastic shocks have permanent effects and the process is not mean-reverting
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J.R. Philip
John Robert Philip AO FAA FRS (18 January 1927, Ballarat – 26 June 1999, Amsterdam) was an Australian soil physicist and hydrologist, internationally recognised for his contributions to the understanding of movement of water, energy and gases. While he never performed his own experimental work, he was recognised for his skills in mathematics that could be used to explain physical processes and solve real world problems.[1][2][3] His interests were not limited to Environmental mechanics and things mathematical, but included a keen interest in the arts. He was a published poet and a panellist on the Sulman Prize for Architecture. His poetry appears in anthologies edited by Judith Wright and in The Oxford Book of Australian Verse.[3]Contents1 Education and positions 2 Research 3 Achievements 4 Publications 5 References 6 External linksEducation and positions[edit] He was a recipient of a Scholarship for Scotch College, Melbourne, where he matriculated at age thirteen
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Allan Snyder
Allan Whitenack Snyder is the director of the Centre for the Mind at the University of Sydney, Australia
Sydney, Australia
where he also holds the 150th Anniversary Chair of Science and the Mind. He is a co-founder of Emotiv
Emotiv
Systems and winner of the International Australia Prize in 1997 and the Marconi Prize in 2001 for his contributions to optical physics. Allan is also the Creator and Chairman of the What Makes a Champion? forum, an official Olympic cultural event first held at the Sydney 2000, then Beijing 2008 and forthcoming London 2012 Olympic Games. Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
and John Howard opened the 2000 event
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