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Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal
The THOMAS RANKEN LYLE MEDAL is awarded at most every two years by the Australian Academy of Science
Australian Academy of Science
to a mathematician or physicist for his or her outstanding research accomplishments. It is named after Thomas Ranken Lyle , an Irish mathematical physicist who became a professor at the University of Melbourne
University of Melbourne
. The award takes the form of a bronze medal bearing the design of the head of Thomas Lyle, as sculpted by Rayner Hoff . The medal was founded by the Australian National Research Council (ANRC) in 1932, and first awarded in 1935. When the Australian Academy of Science was established in 1954, it took over the roles of the ANRC, including administration of the medal
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Sun
The SUN is the star at the center of the Solar System
Solar System
. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma , with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process . It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth
Earth
. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen , carbon , neon , and iron . The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class . As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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Radio Astronomy
RADIO ASTRONOMY is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies . The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way . Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies , as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies , quasars , pulsars , and masers . The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation , regarded as evidence for the Big Bang theory , was made through radio astronomy. Radio astronomy is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes , that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis
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Kurt Mahler
KURT MAHLER FRS (26 July 1903, Krefeld
Krefeld
, Germany – 25 February 1988, Canberra
Canberra
, Australia
Australia
) was a mathematician . CAREERMahler was a student at the universities in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Göttingen , graduating with a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main in 1927; his advisor was Carl Ludwig Siegel . He left Germany with the rise of Hitler
Hitler
and accepted an invitation by Louis Mordell
Louis Mordell
to go to Manchester
Manchester
. However, at the start of World War II he was interned as an enemy alien in Central Camp in Douglas , Isle of Man , where he met Kurt Hirsch , although he was released after only three months. He became a British citizen in 1946
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Number Theory
NUMBER THEORY or, in older usage, ARITHMETIC is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers . It is sometimes called "The Queen of Mathematics" because of its foundational place in the discipline. Number
Number
theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects made out of integers (e.g., rational numbers ) or defined as generalizations of the integers (e.g., algebraic integers ). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations ( Diophantine geometry ). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (e.g., the Riemann zeta function
Riemann zeta function
) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion (analytic number theory )
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Edward J. Hannan
EDWARD JAMES HANNAN FAA FASSA (29 January 1921 – 7 January 1994) was an Australian statistician who is the co-discoverer of the Hannan–Quinn information criterion . He studied at the University of Melbourne under the supervision of Patrick A. P. Moran . For the majority of his working life he was attached the Australian National University . He was Professor of Statistics in the Institute of Advanced Studies 1971-1986, Professor of Statistics in the School of General Studies 1959-1971, and Fellow in Statistics 1954-1958. The Statistical Society of Australia awarded him the Pitman Medal in recognition of his life's work. In 1970 he was elected to the Australian Academy of Science . He also won the 1979 Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal of the Australian Academy of Science . Hannan is the namesake of the Hannan Medal awarded by the Australian Academy of Science. REFERENCES * ^ "EDWARD J. HANNAN, 1921–1994". Journal of Time Series Analysis. 15 (6): 563. 1994
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John Paul Wild
DR JOHN PAUL (PAUL) WILD AC CBE MA ScD (Cantab. ) FRS FTSE FAA (17 May 1923 – 10 May 2008) was a British -born Australian scientist. Following service in World War II
World War II
as a radar officer in the Royal Navy , he became a radio astronomer in Australia
Australia
for the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the fore-runner of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). In the 1950s and 1960s he made discoveries based on radio observations of the Sun. In the late 1960s and early 1970s his team built and operated the world's first solar radio-spectrographs and subsequently the Culgoora radio-heliograph, near Narrabri, New South Wales
Narrabri, New South Wales
. The Paul Wild Observatory
Paul Wild Observatory
at Culgoora is named after him. In 1972 Paul Wild invented Interscan, a standard microwave landing system
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Hans Buchdahl
HANS ADOLF BUCHDAHL (7 July 1919 – 7 January 2010) was a German-born Australian physicist. He contributed to general relativity , thermodynamics and optics . He is particularly known for developing f(R) gravity and Buchdahl\'s theorem on the Schwarzschild\'s solution for the inside of a spherical star. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Publications * 3.1 Books * 3.2 Selected papers * 4 References BIOGRAPHY Hans Adolf Buchdahl was born in Mainz
Mainz
, Germany, in a Jewish family (he used the spelling Adolph to dissociate himself from Hitler). His older brother Gerd Buchdahl was a well-known philosopher in science. In 1933, Gerd took Hans with him to England, to escape the Nazi government. At London, he completed a BSc and received the Associate of the Royal College of Science (ARCS) from Imperial College
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Graph Theory
In mathematics , GRAPH THEORY is the study of graphs , which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of vertices , nodes, or points which are connected by edges, arcs, or lines. A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another; see Graph (discrete mathematics) for more detailed definitions and for other variations in the types of graph that are commonly considered. Graphs are one of the prime objects of study in discrete mathematics . Refer to the glossary of graph theory for basic definitions in graph theory
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Theory Of Relativity
The THEORY OF RELATIVITY usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
: special relativity and general relativity . Special relativity
Special relativity
applies to elementary particles and their interactions, describing all their physical phenomena except gravity . General relativity
General relativity
explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature. It applies to the cosmological and astrophysical realm, including astronomy. The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
. It introduced concepts including spacetime as a unified entity of space and time , relativity of simultaneity , kinematic and gravitational time dilation , and length contraction
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Kinematics
KINEMATICS is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion. Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics. A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on masses falls within kinetics . For further details, see analytical dynamics . Kinematics
Kinematics
is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies
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Robert Hanbury Brown
ROBERT HANBURY BROWN, AC FRS (31 August 1916 – 16 January 2002) was a British astronomer and physicist born in Aruvankadu , India. He made notable contributions to the development of radar and later conducted pioneering work in the field of radio astronomy . With Richard Q. Twiss he developed the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect leading to the creation of intensity interferometers . Hanbury Brown was one of the main designers of the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer and received a number of honours and awards for his work. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Career * 3 Personal life * 4 Honours and awards * 5 Publications * 6 References * 7 Further reading EARLY YEARSBrown was born in India in 1916, the son of an army officer. At age 8 he was sent to England to attend Cottesmore preparatory school in Hove , where he was educated in primarily non-scientific subjects
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Statistics
STATISTICS is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data . In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal." Statistics
Statistics
deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments . When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples . Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole
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Stationary Process
In mathematics and statistics , a STATIONARY PROCESS (a.k.a. a STRICT(LY) STATIONARY PROCESS or STRONG(LY) STATIONARY PROCESS) is a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. Consequently, parameters such as mean and variance , if they are present, also do not change over time. Since stationarity is an assumption underlying many statistical procedures used in time series analysis , non-stationary data is often transformed to become stationary. The most common cause of violation of stationarity are trends in mean, which can be due either to the presence of a unit root or of a deterministic trend. In the former case of a unit root, stochastic shocks have permanent effects and the process is not mean-reverting
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Chris Heyde
CHRISTOPHER CHARLES "CHRIS" HEYDE AM (20 April 1939, Sydney – 6 March 2008, Canberra ) was a prominent Australian statistician who did leading research in probability , stochastic processes and statistics . Heyde was a professor at Columbia University , the University of Melbourne , CSIRO , University of Manchester , University of Sheffield , Michigan State University , and The Australian National University , Canberra . In 2008, Heyde died of metastatic melanoma . CONTENTS * 1 Honours * 2 Offices held * 3 References * 4 External links HONOURS * 1972 - Member of the International Statistical Institute * 1973 - Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics * 1977 - Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (FAA) * 1981 - Honorary Life Member of the Statistical Society of Australia Inc
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Bruce H.J. McKellar
Professor BRUCE HAROLD JOHN MCKELLAR (born 1941) is an Honorary Professorial Fellow at the Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale (CoEPP) in the School of Physics at The University of Melbourne . The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) elected him as its President-Designate in 2012. In November 2014 McKellar became President of IUPAP, the first-ever Australian to take on this role. McKellar is a theoretical particle physicist who is known for his work on particle physics and many other fields such as nuclear physics and cosmology . His other work has had applications in photography , atmospherics physics and geophysics , as well as implications for pure mathematics
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