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Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke Of Newcastle
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle
Duke of Newcastle
upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, KG, PC, FRS (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768), was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle. A protégé of Sir Robert Walpole, he served under him for more than twenty years, until 1742. He held power with his brother, Prime Minister Henry Pelham
Henry Pelham
until 1754. He had at this point served as a Secretary of State continuously for thirty years—dominating British foreign policy. After Henry's death the Duke was prime minister six years, in two separate periods
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His Grace
His Grace or Her Grace is a style used for various high-ranking personages. It was the style used to address Kings of England until Henry VIII[1] and the King or Queen of Scots up to the Act of Union of 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
and the Kingdom of England. Today, the style is used when referring to non-royal dukes and duchesses, and archbishops, in the United Kingdom. For example, His Grace The Duke of Devonshire
Duke of Devonshire
in the United Kingdom, or His Grace The Lord Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury; or Your Grace in spoken or written address
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Lord-Lieutenant
The Lord-Lieutenant (/lɛfˈtɛnənt/[1]) is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom. Historically, the lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed
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Sussex
Sussex
Sussex
(/ˈsʌsɪks/), from the Old English
Old English
Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England
South East England
corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, and divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex
West Sussex
and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, and as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
was granted City status in 2000. Until then, Chichester
Chichester
was Sussex's only city. Sussex
Sussex
has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented approximately east to west
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Anne, Queen Of Great Britain
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714)[a] was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, Mary, were raised as Anglicans. Three years after he succeeded Charles upon the latter's death, James was deposed in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688
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Tories
A Tory
Tory
(/tɔːri/) holds a political philosophy (Toryism) based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history. The Tory
Tory
ethos has been summed up with the phrase "God, King, and Country".[1] Tories generally advocate monarchism, are usually of a high church Anglican religious heritage[2][3] and are opposed to the liberalism of the Whig faction. In Britain, the Tory
Tory
political faction originated with the Cavaliers
Cavaliers
during the English Civil War. It also had exponents in other parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America
British America
who opposed American secession during the American War of Independence
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James Francis Edward Stuart
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII, the monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife Mary of Modena. His Catholic father was deposed in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 only months after his birth, and his Protestant older half-sister Mary II and her husband William III became co-monarchs. The Bill of Rights 1689
Bill of Rights 1689
and Act of Succession 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne, and James was raised in exile. After his father's death in 1701, James claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, in which he was supported by his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France
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Hannover Club
The Hannover Club or Hanover Club was a political society in the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
active during the early 18th century. They were committed to the succession of King George of Hanover to the British throne, rather than the rival claimant James III known as the 'Old Pretender'. It was made up of supporters of the Whig faction. Less well known than the more celebrated Kit Kat Club, with whom they shared many beliefs and members, the group was arguably more important and powerful in pushing for the Hanoverian Succession
Hanoverian Succession
and proved invaluable to George following the death of Queen Anne in 1714, and the year of turmoil that followed. Future Whig Prime Minister the Duke of Newcastle
Duke of Newcastle
was a member of the club.[1] References[edit]^ Browning p.7Bibliography[edit]Browning, Reed. The Duke of Newcastle
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Jacobitism
Several headquarters:Kingdom of France Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of ScotlandArea of operations Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Kingdom of IrelandSizeIn 1745:c. 12,000 French soldiers 4,000 Highlanders c. 700 Irish volunteersAllies  Kingdom of FranceOpponents House of Hanover Jacobitism
Jacobitism
(/ˈdʒækəbaɪˌtɪzəm/ JAK-ə-bye-tiz-əm;[1][2] Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas [ˈʃeːməs̪əxəs̪], Irish: Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England
James II of England
and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland
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Order Of The Garter
The Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III
Edward III
in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and no more than 24 living members, or Companions. The order also includes supernumerary knights and ladies (e.g., members of the British Royal Family and foreign monarchs)
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Secretary Of State (United Kingdom)
A secretary or personal assistant is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events.[1][2][3]Contents1 Duties and functions 2 Etymology 3 Origin 4 Modern developments 5 Contemporary employment 6 Training by country6.1 Belgium 6.2 United States7 Executive assistant7.1 Civilian 7.2 Military8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksDuties and functions[edit]This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed
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Battle Of Preston (1715)
Coordinates: 53°45′14″N 2°42′04″W / 53.754°N 2.701°W / 53.754; -2.701See Battle of Preston (1648)
Battle of Preston (1648)
for the battle of the Second English Civil War.Battle of PrestonPart of the Jacobite rising of 1715
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Old Pretender
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII, the monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife Mary of Modena. His Catholic father was deposed in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 only months after his birth, and his Protestant older half-sister Mary II and her husband William III became co-monarchs. The Bill of Rights 1689
Bill of Rights 1689
and Act of Succession 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne, and James was raised in exile. After his father's death in 1701, James claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, in which he was supported by his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France
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James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope
James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope
Earl Stanhope
PC (c. 1673 – 5 February 1721) was a British statesman and soldier who effectively served as Chief Minister between 1717 and 1721. Born in Paris
Paris
as the son of a prominent diplomat, Stanhope pursued a military career. Although he also served in Flanders
Flanders
and Italy, he is best remembered for his service in Portugal and Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was the first British Governor of Minorca, which he captured from the Spanish in 1708. In 1710 he commanded the British contingent of the Allied Army which occupied Madrid
Madrid
having won a decisive victory at the Battle of Zaragoza
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War Of The Spanish Succession
The Grand Alliance Holy Roman Empire Austria  Prussia Spain
Spain
loyal to Charles Crown of Aragon Great Britain [a]  Dutch Republic  Portugal  SavoyBourbon France and Spain
Spain
 France P
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Godfrey Kneller
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet
Baronet
(born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I
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