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Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, serving under John Adams
John Adams
from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. He was a land owner and farmer. Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law, at times defending slaves seeking their freedom
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Social Contract
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment. Usually, the social contract concerns the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.[1] Social contract
Social contract
arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange for protection of their remaining rights
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British America
British America
British America
refers to the English territories in North America (including Bermuda), Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana
Guyana
from 1607 to 1783. Formally, the British colonies in North America
North America
were known as British America
British America
and the British West Indies
British West Indies
until 1776, when the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
declared their independence and formed the United States
United States
of America.[1] After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Britain's continental North American possessions
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Michael Sandel
Michael J. Sandel
Michael J. Sandel
(/ˌsænˈdɛl/; born March 5, 1953) is an American political philosopher and a political philosophy professor at Harvard University. His course “Justice” is the first Harvard
Harvard
course to be made freely available online and on television. It has been viewed by tens of millions of people around the world, including in China, where Sandel was named the “most influential foreign figure of the year” (China Newsweek).[1] He is also known for his critique of John Rawls' A Theory of Justice
A Theory of Justice
in his first book, Liberalism
Liberalism
and the Limits of Justice
Justice
(1982)
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John Harvie
John Harvie (1742 – February 6, 1807) was an American lawyer and builder from Virginia. He was a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and 1778, where he signed the Articles of Confederation.Contents1 Early life and family 2 Career 3 Death 4 ReferencesEarly life and family[edit] John Harvie was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, in 1742, to farmer and Scottish immigrant Col. John Harvie, Sr. (1706–1767) and Martha Gaines Harvie (1719–1802). His brother Richard was an older brother who resided in what is off US 60 in Amherst County. As a boy, Harvie was a close friend of Thomas Jefferson, and his father became Jefferson's legal guardian after his cousin Peter Jefferson died in 1757. Harvie read law and was admitted to the bar before settling in Augusta County. Career[edit] Harvie built a successful law practice
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Polybius
Polybius
Polybius
(/pəˈlɪbiəs/; Greek: Πολύβιος, Polýbios; c. 200 – c. 118 BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
noted for his work The Histories, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail
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James Harrington (author)
James Harrington (or Harington) (3 January 1611 – 11 September 1677) was an English political theorist of classical republicanism,[1] best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656). This work was an exposition on an ideal constitution, designed to facilitate the development of a utopian republic.Contents1 Early life 2 Childhood and education 3 Youth 4 Oceana and imprisonment4.1 Editorial history5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit]Memorial to Harrington's mother, Dame Jane, Holy Cross Church, Milton Malsor, England.James Harrington was born in 1611 in Upton, Northamptonshire, eldest son of Sir Sapcote(s) Harrington of
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Res Publica
Res publica is a Latin
Latin
phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'. It is the root of the word 'republic', and the word 'commonwealth' has traditionally been used as a synonym for it; however translations vary widely according to the context. 'Res' is a nominative singular Latin noun for a substantive or concrete thing – as opposed to 'spes', which means something unreal or ethereal – and 'publica' is an attributive adjective meaning 'of and/or pertaining to the state or the public'. Hence a literal translation is, 'the public thing/affair'.[1]Contents1 In ancient Rome1.1 Public property 1.2 The state or commonwealth 1.3 The Roman Republic 1.4 Public affairs or institutions 1.5 Other uses 1.6 Quotations1.6.1 Cicero 1.6.2 Pliny the Elder 1.6.3 Tacitus 1.6.4 Augustine2 Calques 3 Notes 4 ReferencesIn ancient Rome[edit] Public property[edit] Res publica usually is something held in common by many people
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Abolition Of Monarchy
The abolition of monarchy is the occurrence, actual or topical, of the ending of an aristocratic ("hereditary government") control of a country and the cessation of its kind of government ("monarchy"). It has occurred throughout history, either through revolutions, coups d'état, wars, or legislative reforms (such as abdications). The founding of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
is a noteworthy example and became part of the nation's traditions including as justification for the assassination of Julius Caesar. The twentieth century saw a major acceleration of this process, with many monarchies violently overthrown by revolution or war, or else abolished as part of the process of decolonisation
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Colony Of Virginia
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert[2] in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Walter Raleigh
in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia
Virginia
Company,[3] with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony
Popham Colony
on the Kennebec River
Kennebec River
in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years
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United States Ambassador To France
The United States
United States
Ambassador to France
France
is the official representative of the President of the United States
President of the United States
to the head of state of France. There has been a U.S. Ambassador to France
France
since the American Revolution. The United States
United States
sent its first envoys to France
France
in 1776, towards the end of the four-centuries-old Bourbon dynasty. The American diplomatic relationship with France
France
has continued throughout that country's five republican regimes, two periods of French empire, the Bourbon Restoration, and its July Monarchy
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Hannah Arendt
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt[9] (/ˈɛərənt, ˈɑːrənt/; German: [ˈaːʀənt];[10] 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American political theorist. Her eighteen books and numerous articles, on topics ranging from totalitarianism to epistemology, had a lasting influence on political theory.[8] Arendt is widely considered one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century.[8][11] As a Jew, Arendt chose to leave Nazi Germany
Germany
in 1933, and lived in Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, and France before escaping to the United States in 1941 via Portugal. She became an American citizen in 1950, having been stripped of her German citizenship in 1937. Her works deal with the nature of power and the subjects of politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism
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Congress Of The Confederation
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America
United States of America
that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789. A unicameral body with legislative and executive function, it comprised delegates appointed by the legislatures of the several states. Each state delegation had one vote
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