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Thomas Francis Kennedy
Thomas Francis Kennedy (11 November 1788 – 1 April 1879), Scottish politician, was born near Ayr
Ayr
in 1788. He studied for the bar and became advocate in 1811. Having been elected Member of Parliament for the Ayr
Ayr
Burghs in 1818, he devoted the greater part of his life to the promotion of liberal reforms. In 1820 he married the only daughter of Sir Samuel Romilly. He was greatly assisted by Lord Cockburn, then Mr. Henry Cockburn, and a volume of correspondence published by Kennedy in 1874 forms a curious and interesting record of the consultations of the two friends on measures which they regarded as requisite for the political regeneration of their native country. One of the first measures to which he directed his attention was the withdrawal of the power of nominating juries from the judges, and the imparting of a right of peremptory challenge to prisoners
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Law Of Entail
In English common law, fee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, and instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir pre-determined by the settlement deed
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Lord Of The Treasury
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
there are at least six Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, serving as a commission for the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer. The board consists of the First Lord of the Treasury, the Second Lord of the Treasury, and four or more junior lords to whom this title is usually applied. Strictly they are commissioners for exercising the office of Lord High Treasurer (similar to the status of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty exercising the office of Lord High Admiral until 1964, when the Queen resumed the office)
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United Kingdom General Election, 1818
Earl of Liverpool ToryAppointed Prime Minister Earl of Liverpool Tory1807 election MPs1812 election MPs1818 election MPs1820 election MPs1826 election MPsThe 1818 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
general election saw the Whigs gain a few seats, but the Tories under the Earl of Liverpool retained a majority of around 90 seats. The Whigs were divided over their response to growing social unrest and the introduction of the Corn Laws. The result of the election was known on 4 August 1818. The fifth United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament was dissolved on 10 June 1818. The new Parliament was summoned to meet on 4 August 1818, for a maximum seven-year term from that date. The maximum term could be and normally was curtailed, by the monarch dissolving the Parliament, before its term expired
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SNAC
SNAC, or Social Networks and Archival Context, is an online effort for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records started by a collaboration of United States-based organizations. It was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),[1] California Digital Library (CDL), Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia and the University of California, Berkeley School of Information.[2][3] See also[edit] Archival Resource Key (ARK)References[edit]^ Ferriero, David (2015-08-18). "Introducing SNAC". National Archives - AOTUS blog. Retrieved 2017-05-08.  ^ "SNAC: Social Networks and Archival Context". socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08.  ^ Larson, Ray R.; Pitti, Daniel; Turner, Adrian (2014)
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Parliament Of The United Kingdom
HM Government     Conservative Party (245)Confidence and supply     Democratic Unionist
Democratic Unionist
Party (3)HM Most Loyal Opposition     Labour Party (191)Other opposition     Liberal Democrats (98)      Non-affiliated (29)      UKIP (3)      Ind. Labour (3)      Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
(2)      Green Party (1)      Ind. Social Democrat (1)      Ind
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5]
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Civil Services
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration
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Pay Master
Her Majesty's Paymaster General or HM Paymaster General is a ministerial position in the United Kingdom. When the post is held by a minister in HM Treasury it is typically given to the third highest-ranking minister, after the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Chief Secretary to the Treasury. The incumbent Paymaster General is Mel Stride, whose main title is Financial Secretary to the Treasury.Contents1 History 2 Role 3 List of Paymasters General3.1 Victorian 3.2 Edwardian and wartime 3.3 Post-War 3.4 21st century4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The post was created in 1836 by the merger of the positions of the offices of the Paymaster of the Forces, (1661–1836), the Treasurer of the Navy, (1546–1835), the Paymaster and Treasurer of Chelsea Hospital and the Treasurer of the Ordnance, (1670–1835)
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Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland
Ireland
is the third-largest island in Europe. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland
Ireland
was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe
Europe
after Great Britain
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Sheriff Courts
A sheriff court (Scottish Gaelic: cùirt an t-siorraim) is the principal local civil and criminal court in Scotland, with exclusive jurisdiction over all civil cases with a monetary up to £100,000, and with the jurisdiction to hear any criminal case except treason, murder, and rape which are in the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Justiciary. Though the sheriff courts have concurrent jurisdiction with the High Court over armed robbery, drug trafficking, and sexual offences involving children, the vast majority of these cases are heard by the High Court. Each court serves a sheriff court district within one of the six sheriffdoms of Scotland. Each sheriff court is presided over by a sheriff, who is a legally qualified judge, and part of the judiciary of Scotland. Sheriff courts hear civil cases as a bench trial without a jury, and make determinations and judgments alone
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Burgh Reform
A police burgh was a Scottish burgh which had adopted a “police system” for governing the town. They existed from 1833 to 1975.Contents1 The 1833 act1.1 Forming a police burgh 1.2 Boundaries 1.3 Commissioners 1.4 Powers and duties2 Parliamentary burghs 3 Changes in legislation 4 See also 5 ReferencesThe 1833 act[edit] The first police burghs were created under the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act, 1833 (3 & 4 Wm IV c.46). This act enabled existing royal burghs, burghs of regality, and burghs of barony to adopt powers of paving, lighting, cleansing, watching, supplying with water and improving their communities. This preceded the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which introduced a similar reform in England and Wales, by two years. Forming a police burgh[edit] In order for the act to be adopted in any burgh, an application by householders in the town had to be made for a poll to be held
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British Whig Party
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories
Tories
back in. The "Whig Supremacy" (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1715
by Tory rebels
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