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Thomas (bishop Of Finland)
Thomas (Finnish: Tuomas) is the first known Bishop of Finland. Only a few facts are known about his life
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Bishop Of Finland
The Archdiocese of Turku
Turku
(Finnish: Turun arkkihiippakunta, Swedish: Åbo ärkestift), historically known as Archdiocese of Åbo, is the seat of the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Turku. It is a part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, and its see city is Turku. The Archbishop has many administrative tasks relating to the National church, and is the Metropolitan and Primate of the church
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Eric IX Of Sweden
Eric IX[1] of Sweden, (Swedish: Erik Jedvardsson; Erik den helige; died 18 May 1160), also called Eric the Lawgiver, Erik the Saint, Eric the Holy, and, in Sweden, Sankt Erik, meaning Saint
Saint
Eric, was a Swedish king c. 1156-60. No historical records of Eric have survived, and all information about him is based on later legends that were aimed at having him established as a saint. The Roman Martyrology of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
names him as a saint memorialized on 18 May.[2] He is the ancestor of the House of Eric
House of Eric
which ruled Sweden
Sweden
with interruptions from c
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Pope Innocent III
Pope
Pope
Innocent III (Latin: Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni. Pope
Pope
Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential popes. He exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings. Pope
Pope
Innocent was central in supporting the Catholic Church's reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and the Fourth Lateran
Lateran
Council. This resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. Pope
Pope
Innocent is notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, although these measures were not uniformly successful
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Christianization
Anthropology Comparative religion Development Neurotheology / God gene Origins PsychologyPrehistoric Ancient Near East  · Ancient Egypt  · Semitic Indo-European  · Vedic Hinduism  · Greco-Roman  · Celtic  · Germanic Axial Age  · Vedanta
Vedanta
 · Shramana  · Dharma
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Pope Alexander III
Pope
Pope
Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena,[1] was Pope
Pope
from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181. Through the Papal bull
Papal bull
Manifestis Probatum, issued on 23 May 1179, he recognized the right of Afonso I to proclaim himself King of Portugal, thus recognizing Portugal
Portugal
as an independent and sovereign Kingdom.[2] He also laid the foundation stone for the Notre-Dame de Paris.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Disputed election 3 Alexander's politics 4 Efforts at reform 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly life and career[edit] Pope
Pope
Alexander III was born in Siena
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Anders Sunesen
Anders Sunesen
Anders Sunesen
(also Andreas, Suneson, Sunesøn, Latin: Andreas Sunonis) (c. 1167 – 1228) was a Danish archbishop of Lund, Scania, from 21 March 1201, at the death of Absalon, to his own death in 1228. He is the author of the Latin
Latin
translation of the Scanian Law
Scanian Law
and was throughout his life engaged in integrating a Christian worldview into the old legislature
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Birger Jarl
 Birger Jarl (help·info) (c. 1210[3][4] – 21 October 1266[2]), or Birger Magnusson, was a Swedish statesman, Jarl of Sweden and a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role in the consolidation of Sweden.[5] Birger also led the Second Swedish Crusade, which established Swedish rule in Finland. Additionally, he is traditionally attributed to have founded the Swedish capital, Stockholm
Stockholm
around 1250
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Kokemäki
Kokemäki
Kokemäki
(Swedish: Kumo) is a town and municipality in the Satakunta Region of Finland. The town has a population of 7,433 (31 August 2017)[2] and covers an area of 531.27 square kilometres (205.12 sq mi) of which 50.04 km2 (19.32 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 15.45 inhabitants per square kilometre (40.0/sq mi). The 121kilometre long Kokemäenjoki
Kokemäenjoki
river flows from Lake Liekovesi, in the Pirkanmaa
Pirkanmaa
region, through Kokemäki
Kokemäki
and in to the Gulf of Bothnia at Pori. The Kolsi hydro-electric power plant is located at Kokemäki. Kokemäenjoki
Kokemäenjoki
has long been an important waterway, well known for its salmon, whitefish and lamprey.[6] Finland
Finland
is constitutionally bi-lingual with a Swedish speaking minority
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William Of Modena
William of Modena (c. 1184 – 31 March 1251), also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus, was an Italian clergyman and papal diplomat. He was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III
Honorius III
and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia
Livonia
in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. Eventually he resigned his see to devote himself to these diplomatic issues. On 28 May 1244 he was created Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
by Pope Innocent IV
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Köyliö
Köyliö
Köyliö
(Swedish: Kjulo) is a former municipality of Finland. It was merged to the municipality of Säkylä
Säkylä
on 1 January 2016.[3] It was located in the province of Western Finland
Finland
and was part of the Satakunta
Satakunta
region. The population of Köyliö
Köyliö
was 2,665 (30 June 2015)[2] and covered a land area of 246.06 km2 (95.00 sq mi).[1] The population density was 10.8307/km2 (28.051/sq mi). The municipality was unilingually Finnish. It is said that the peasant Lalli
Lalli
murdered the English bishop Henry on the ice of Lake Köyliö
Köyliö
in 1155 AD, during the first Swedish Crusade into Finland
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Koroinen
Koroinen
Koroinen
(Finnish; Korois in Swedish) is a district in the Koroinen ward of the city of Turku, in Finland. It is located to the north of the city centre, across the river Aura from the Turku
Turku
Student Village. Koroinen
Koroinen
is mostly non-built-up area, consisting largely of recreational area. The current (as of 2004[update]) population of the district is 26. History[edit] Koroinen
Koroinen
was the residence of Bishop of Finland
Finland
until 1300 when it was moved a couple of kilometres further down the River Aura, to the present-day Cathedral of Turku
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Turku Cathedral
Turku
Turku
Cathedral (Finnish: Turun tuomiokirkko, Swedish: Åbo domkyrka) is the previous catholic cathedral of Finland, today the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. It is the central church of the Lutheran Archdiocese of Turku
Turku
and the seat of the Lutheran Archbishop
Archbishop
of Finland, Kari Mäkinen. It is also regarded as one of the major records of Finnish architectural history. Considered to be the most important religious building in Finland, the cathedral has borne witness to many important events in the nation's history and has become one of the city's most recognizable symbols. The cathedral is situated in the heart of Turku
Turku
next to the Old Great Square, by the river Aura. Its presence extends beyond the local precinct by having the sound of its bells chiming at noon broadcast on national radio
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Bishop Of Linköping
Bishops of the Diocese of Linköping, Sweden. Before the reformation[edit]Herbert? Rikard? 1139–1160s Gisle 1170–1171 Stenar 1187–1195/96 Kol Johannes 1216–1220 Karl Magnusson 1220–1236 Bengt Magnusson 1236–1258 Lars 1258–1283 Henrik 1258–1286 Bo 1286–1291 Bengt Birgersson 1292–1307 Lars 1307–1338 Karl Bååt 1342–1351 Petrus Torkilsson 1352–1372 Nils Markusson 1373–1374 Gottskalk Falkdal 1375–1391 Nils Hermansson 1391–1436 Knut Bosson 1436–1440 Bengt Larsson 1441–1458 Nils König 1459–1465 Kettil Karlsson 1465–1500 Henrik Tidemansson 1501–1512 Hemming Gadh 1513–1527 Hans BraskAfter the reformation[edit]1529–1540 Jöns Månsson 1543–1558 Nicolaus Canuti 1558–1569 Erik Falck 1569–1580 Martinus Olai Gestricus 1583–1587 Petrus Caroli 1589–1606 Petrus Benedicti 1606–1630 Jonas Kylander 1631–1635 Johannes Botvidi 1637–1644 Jonas Petri Gothus 1645–1655 Andreas Johannis Prytz 1655–1670 Samuel Enander 1671
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Cistercian
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/,[1] abbreviated as OCist or SOCist (Latin: (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania), or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians
Cistercians
over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
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