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Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
(also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)[nb 1] were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. After several defeats at the hands of Ivan III
Ivan III
and Vasily III, the Lithuanians were increasingly reliant on Polish aid, which eventually became an important factor in the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Before the first series of wars in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
had already gained control of a lot of Rus' territories, from Kiev
Kiev
to Mozhaisk, following the collapse of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
after the Mongol invasions
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Polish–Russian Wars
Wars fought between Poland
Poland
(including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and Russia
Russia
(including the Soviet
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Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea
Sea
is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany
Germany
and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea
Sea
drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat
Kattegat
by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt
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Battle On The Irpen' River
The Battle on the Irpin River
Irpin River
is a semi-legendary battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
and Principality of Kiev. According to the story, Gediminas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, conquered Volhynia
Volhynia
before turning his attention to Kiev. He was opposed by Prince Stanislav of Kiev
Kiev
allied with the Principality of Pereyaslavl and Bryansk. Lithuanians achieved a great victory and extended their influence to Kiev. There are no contemporary sources that attest to the battle. It is known only from late and generally unreliable Lithuanian Chronicles. Therefore, historians disagree whether it was an actual battle in the early 1320s[nb 1] or a fictional story invented by later scribes
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Chernigov
Chernihiv
Chernihiv
(Ukrainian: Чернігів Ukrainian pronunciation: [t͡ʃɛrˈnʲiɦiw]) also known as Chernigov (Russian: Черни́гов, IPA: [tɕɪrˈnʲiɡəf], Polish: Czernihów)[2] is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast
Chernihiv Oblast
(province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion
Chernihiv Raion
(district) within the oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population: 294,727 (2015 est.)[3]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Architecture3.1 Monasteries4 Climate 5 Gallery 6 Famous people from Chernihiv 7 International relations7.1 Twin towns - Sister cities8 References8.1 Bibliography 8.2 Notes9 External linksGeography[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Severia
Severia or Siveria (Old East Slavic: Сѣверія, Ukrainian: Сіверія or Сіверщина, translit. Siveria or Sivershchyna, Russian: Северщина, Severshchina; Polish: Siewierszczyzna) is a historical region in present-day northern Ukraine, eastern Belarus
Belarus
and southwestern Russia, centered on the city of Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
in Ukraine.Contents1 Severians 2 Culture 3 References 4 External linksSeverians[edit] Main article: Severians The region received its name after the Severians, an East Slavic tribe which inhabited the territory in the late 1st millennium A.D
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Algirdas
Algirdas
Algirdas
(Belarusian: Альгерд, Ukrainian: Ольгерд, Polish: Olgierd; c. 1296 – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians
Ruthenians
from 1345 to 1377. With the help of his brother Kęstutis
Kęstutis
(who defended the western border of the Duchy) he created an empire stretching from the present Baltic states
Baltic states
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and to within fifty miles of Moscow.Contents1 Background 2 Expansion of Lithuania 3 Religion and death 4 Assessment 5 See also 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] Algirdas
Algirdas
was one of the seven sons of Grand Prince Gediminas. Before his death in 1341, Gediminas
Gediminas
divided his domain, leaving his youngest son Jaunutis in possession of the capital, Vilnius
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Tver
Tver
Tver
(Russian: Тверь, IPA: [tvʲerʲ]; IPA: [tvʲerʲi]) is a city and the administrative center of Tver
Tver
Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606 (2015 est.);[8] 403,606 (2010 Census);[7] 408,903 (2002 Census);[14] 450,941 (1989 Census).[15] Located 180 kilometres (110 mi) northwest of Moscow, Tver
Tver
was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on January 14, 1913. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa
Tvertsa
Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990
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Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
(/ˈmɒskoʊ, -kaʊ/; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits[11] and 17.1 million within the urban area.[12] Moscow
Moscow
is recognized as a Russian federal city. Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Dmitry Donskoy
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow
Moscow
– 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow
Moscow
(1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow
Moscow
from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death. He was the first prince of Moscow
Moscow
to openly challenge Mongol
Mongol
authority in Russia
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Lyubutsk
Lyubutsk (Lyubutsk, Lyubutesk, Russian: Любутск) was a Russian fortress, located about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) below the confluence the Oka River with Dugna in the present-day Kaluga Oblast. Its name derives from a rivulet flowing on northern and eastern sides of the city. Initially Lyubutsk was part of the Principality of Bryansk. In the 14th century, the city was acquired by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The town was mentioned in 1372 when Algirdas of Lithuania and Mikhail of Tver marched against Dmitry Donskoy, Grand Duke of Moscow, who managed to stop the joint army. After a period of stand off, Algirdas and Dmitry reached an agreement and concluded the Treaty of Lyubutsk.[1] In 1408, Lyubustk became a property of Vladimir the Bold. However, in 1473 was again under the rule of Lithuania. In 1460 Lyubutsk was mentioned as a settlement reached by Akhmat Khan during his attack on Lithuania and Moscow
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Belarus
Coordinates: 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian) Республика Беларусь (Russian)FlagNational emblemAnthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian) Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś (English: State Anthem of Belarus)Location of  Belarus  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Minsk 53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.550
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Ukraine
42,418,235 [4] (32nd)• 2001 census48,457,102[3]• Density73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate• Total$366 billion[5] (50th)• Per capita$8,656[5] (114th)GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate• Total$104 billion[5] (62nd)• Per capita$2,459[5] (132nd)Gini (2015)  25.5[6] low · 18thHDI (2015)  0.743[7] high · 84thCurrency Ukrainian hryvnia
Ukrainian hryvnia
(UAH)Time zone EET (UTC+2[8])• Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Drives on the rightCalling code +380 ISO 3166 code UA Internet
Internet
TLD.ua .укрAn independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.This article contains Cyrillic text
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Trade Route
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries, which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes
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Gediminas
Gediminas
Gediminas
(c. 1275 – December 1341) was Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316[1][2] until his death
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Vasili I Of Russia
Vasily I Dmitriyevich (Russian: Василий I Дмитриевич; 30 December 1371 – 27 February 1425) was the Grand Prince of Moscow (r. 1389—1425), heir of Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry Donskoy
(r. 1359—1389). He ruled as a Golden Horde
Golden Horde
vassal between 1389-1395, and again in 1412-1425. The raid on the Volgan regions in 1395 by Mongol emir Timur
Timur
resulted in a state of anarchy for the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and the independence of Moscow. In 1412, Vasily reinstated himself as a vassal of the Horde
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