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Third Army (Romania)
The 3rd Army (Armata a 3-a Română) was a field army of the Romanian Land Forces active from the 19th century to the 1990s. It fought as part of the German Army Group B during World War II, in Ukraine, the Crimea, and the Caucasus. General Petre Dumitrescu
Petre Dumitrescu
commanded 3rd Army for a period.Contents1 World War I 2 World War II 3 Battle of Stalingrad 4 Later in the war and postwar 5 References 6 External linksWorld War I[edit] In World War I, the Third Army defended the border with Bulgaria when the rest of the Romanian Army attacked Transylvania. When a Bulgarian-German army under August von Mackensen
August von Mackensen
invaded Romania in September 1916, the Romanian Third Army made attempts to withstand the enemy offensive at Silistra, Dobrich, Amzacea
Amzacea
and Topraisar, but had to withdraw under the pressure of superior enemy forces
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Field Army
A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Likewise, air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces. A field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are usually named or numbered to distinguish them from "army" in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the typical style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as "First Army"; whereas corps are usually distinguished by Roman numerals (e.g. I Corps) and subordinate formations with ordinal numbers (e.g. 1st Division)
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5th Tank Army
5th Tank Army is the name of several Soviet units during World War II (not to be confused with the 5th Guards Tank Army). Its first formation occurred on 5 June 1942, commanded by Major-General Alexander Lizyukov, serving under the Bryansk Front in the Voronezh sector, and was dissolved after suffering heavy losses on 15 July 1942.[1] The second formation occurred on 3 September 1942, where it served under the Southwestern Front for the winter offensive 1942–1943 and was dissolved on 20 April 1943. Its staff then served as the core for the creation of the 12th Army. References[edit]^ Glantz, David M.; House, Jonathan (2009). To the Gates of Stalingrad: Soviet-German Combat Operations, April–August 1942. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas
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Don River (Russia)
The Don (Russian: Дон, IPA: [don]) is one of the major rivers of Russia
Russia
and the 5th longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper
Dnieper
basin to the west, the Volga
Volga
basin to the east, and the Oka basin (tributary of the Volga) to the north. The Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Tula (120 km south of Moscow), and flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov on Don
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Serafimovich (town)
Serafimovich (Russian: Серафимо́вич) is a town and the administrative center of Serafimovichsky District
Serafimovichsky District
in Volgograd
Volgograd
Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Don River, 160 kilometers (99 mi) northwest of Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast
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Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
(from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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XLVIII Panzer Corps
XXXXVIII Panzer Corps
Corps
(also: XXXXVIII Army Corps
Corps
or XXXXVIII. Armeekorps)[note 1], was a corps-level formation of the German Army which saw extensive action on both the eastern and western fronts during World War II.Contents1 History 2 Commanders 3 General Staff Officers 4 Subordinate units 5 Notes 6 References6.1 Citations 6.2 BibliographyHistory[edit] The corps was originally formed on 15 December 1940 in Germany. At the dawn of Operation Barbarossa, on 22 June 1941, it was redesignated as the XXXXVIII Panzer Corps. The Corps
Corps
was attached to Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist's Panzer Group 1, a part of Army Group South. The corps took part in the Battle of Brody early in the campaign, and later saw action at Berdichev
Berdichev
and Kirovograd
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Panzer
Panzer
Panzer
/ˈpænzər/ (German pronunciation: [ˈpantsɐ] ( listen)) is a German word that means armour. It is also used by German-speakers as an abbreviation meaning "armoured fighting vehicle" or tank (the military vehicle). The full German word for "armoured combat vehicle" is Panzerkampfwagen. The word Panzer
Panzer
is occasionally used in English and some other languages as a loanword in the context of the German military.Contents1 Use 2 Origin 3 See also 4 ReferencesUse[edit] It is mostly used in the proper names of military formations (Panzerdivision, ‘panzer division’, 4th Panzer
Panzer
Army, etc.), and in the proper names of tanks, such as Panzer
Panzer
IV, etc. Origin[edit] The dated but official German term is Panzerkampfwagen, ‘tank’ or literally ‘armoured combat vehicle’ (the modern commonly used synonym is Kampfpanzer, or just Panzer)
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Artillery
Artillery
Artillery
is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army's total firepower. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, rockets and guided missiles
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Soviet Southwestern Front
The Southwestern Front was a name given to a Front (or Army group sized military formation) by the Imperial Russian Army
Imperial Russian Army
during the First World War, by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic during the Russian Civil War, and by the Red Army
Red Army
during the Second World War. The Southwestern Front in this article describes several distinct organizations during the Second World War. This Red Army
Red Army
formation was first created on June 22, 1941 from the Kiev Special
Special
Military District. The western boundary of the front in June 1941 was 865 km long, from the Pripyat River
Pripyat River
and the town of Wlodawa to the Prut River
Prut River
and the town of Lipkany at the border with Romania
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1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)
World War IIStalingradDecorations Order of LeninCommandersNotable commanders Andrei Grechko Dmitry LelyushenkoThe 1st Guards Army was a Soviet field army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.Contents1 First Formation1.1 Commanders2 Second Formation2.1 Commander3 Third Formation3.1 Commanders4 After World War II4.1 Commanders5 Notes 6 ReferencesFirst Formation[edit] On August 6, 1942, the army formed from the 2nd Reserve Army with five Guards Rifle Divisions, the 37th, 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st. On August 9, the army was incorporated into Southeastern Front. On August 18, it was transferred to the Stalingrad Front (renamed Don Front on September 30). During the German Sixth Army's assault on Stalingrad
Stalingrad
in August 1942, the Red Army
Red Army
launched a counter-offensive to drive the German forces back
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Molotov Cocktails
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Kalach-na-Donu
Kalach-na-Donu
Kalach-na-Donu
(Russian: Кала́ч-на-Дону́), or Kalach-on-the-Don, is a town and the administrative center of Kalachyovsky District
Kalachyovsky District
in Volgograd
Volgograd
Oblast, Russia, located on the Don River, 72 kilometers (45 mi) west of Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast
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22nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)
The 22nd Panzer Division was a German Panzer Division in World War II. It was formed September 1941 in France. It was transferred to the southern sector of the Eastern Front in March 1942. The 22nd was the last Panzer Division to be issued with the Czech-built Panzer 38(t), which was considered under-gunned, under-armoured and obsolete by 1942.Contents1 History 2 Commanders 3 Further reading 4 References4.1 BibliographyHistory[edit] Officially formed on 25 September 1941 in France the division was initially equipped with obsolete Czech, French and German tanks.[1] The 22nd Panzer Division was sent to the Eastern Front in February 1942. After an initial disastrous attack on 20 March, in which the division's units lost 30-40% of their personnel, the division remained in the Crimea and took part in Manstein's Unternehmen Trappenjagd (Operation Bustard Hunt)
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22nd Panzer Division
The 22nd Panzer Division was a German Panzer Division in World War II. It was formed September 1941 in France. It was transferred to the southern sector of the Eastern Front in March 1942. The 22nd was the last Panzer Division to be issued with the Czech-built Panzer 38(t), which was considered under-gunned, under-armoured and obsolete by 1942.Contents1 History 2 Commanders 3 Further reading 4 References4.1 BibliographyHistory[edit] Officially formed on 25 September 1941 in France the division was initially equipped with obsolete Czech, French and German tanks.[1] The 22nd Panzer Division was sent to the Eastern Front in February 1942. After an initial disastrous attack on 20 March, in which the division's units lost 30-40% of their personnel, the division remained in the Crimea and took part in Manstein's Unternehmen Trappenjagd (Operation Bustard Hunt)
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