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Thiothixene
Tiotixene, or thiothixene, sold under the brand name Navane among others, is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene class which is related to chlorprothixene and is used in the treatment of psychoses like schizophrenia and bipolar mania
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United States Adopted Name
United States
United States
Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States. Each name is assigned by the USAN Council, which is co-sponsored by the American Medical Association (AMA), the United States
United States
Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), and the American Pharmacists Association
American Pharmacists Association
(APhA). The USAN Program states that its goal is to select simple, informative, and unique nonproprietary names (also called generic names) for drugs by establishing logical nomenclature classifications based on pharmacological or chemical relationships.[1] In addition to drugs, the USAN Council names agents for gene therapy and cell therapy, contact lens polymers, surgical materials, diagnostics, carriers, and substances used as an excipient
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Mania
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect."[1] Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety. The symptoms of mania include heightened mood (either euphoric or irritable); flight of ideas and pressure of speech; and increased energy, decreased need for sleep, and hyperactivity. They are most plainly evident in fully developed hypomanic states; in full-blown mania, however, they undergo progressively severe exacerbations and become more and more obscured by other signs and symptoms, such as delusions and fragmentation of behavior.[2] Mania
Mania
is a syndrome with multiple causes
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JSmol
Jmol
Jmol
is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License
GNU Lesser General Public License
(LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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American Society Of Health-System Pharmacists
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Pharmacists
(ASHP) is a professional organization representing the interests of pharmacists who practice in hospitals, health maintenance organizations, long-term care facilities, home care, and other components of health care. Previously it was known as the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. As of 2018[update], ASHP has 45,000 members and a staff of more than 200.Contents1 History 2 Aim 3 Publications 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] By 1939 a subsection of hospital pharmacists was formed in the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA), and for the first time, hospital pharmacists had a voice in a national organization. In 1942, hospital pharmacists established the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, affiliated with APhA
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Psychosis
Psychosis
Psychosis
is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.[4] Symptoms may include false beliefs and seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear.[4] Other symptoms may include incoherent speech and behavior that is inappropriate for the situation.[4] There may also be sleep problems, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, and difficulties carrying out daily activities.[4]
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Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.[2] Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation.[2][3] People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depressive, or substance-use disorders.[11] Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in yo
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Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.[6][3][4] The altered mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present.[3] During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable.[3] Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences.[4] The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases.[4] During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others.[3] The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30–40 percent.[3] Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorder are commonly associated.[3] The causes are not clearly understood, but both environmental and genetic facto
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Pfizer
Coordinates: 41°20′04″N 72°04′05″W / 41.3343429°N 72.06795°W / 41.3343429; -72.06795 Pfizer
Pfizer
Inc.Entrance to Pfizer
Pfizer
headquartersTypePublicTraded asNYSE: PFE DJIA Component S&P 100 Component S&P 500 ComponentIndustry PharmaceuticalFounded 1849; 169 years ago (1849)Founders Charles Pfizer Charles F. ErhartHeadquarters New York City, New York, U.S.Area servedWorldwideKey people Ian Read (Chairman & CEO)Products See listRevenue US$52.546 billion (2017)[1]Operating income US$13.620 billion (2017)[1]Net income US$21.308 billion (2017)[1]Total assets US$171.797 billion (2017)[2]Total equity US$71.308 billion (2017)[2]Number of employees96,500 (2016)[3]Subsidiaries Agouron Pharmaceuticals G.D. Searle Greenstone Hospira InnoPharma Parke-DavisWebsite www.pfizer.com Pfizer
Pfizer
Inc
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Serotonin Transporter
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.[1] SERT is a type of monoamine transporter protein that transports serotonin from the synaptic cleft to the presynaptic neuron.[2] This transport of serotonin by the SERT protein terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner. This protein is the target of many antidepressant medications of the SSRI and tricyclic antidepressant classes.[3] It is a member of the sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family
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Norepinephrine Transporter
NM_001043 NM_001172501 NM_001172502 NM_001172504NM_009209RefSeq (protein)NP_001034 NP_001165972 NP_001165973 NP_001165975NP_033235Location (UCSC) Chr 16: 55.66 – 55.71 Mb Chr 8: 92.96 – 93 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.[5] NET is a monoamine transporter and is responsible for the sodium-chloride (Na+/Cl−)-dependent reuptake of extracellular norepinephrine (NE), which is also known as noradrenaline. NET can also reuptake extracellular dopamine (DA). The reuptake of these two neurotransmitters is essential in regulating concentrations in the synaptic cleft. NETs, along with the other monoamine transporters, are the targets of many antidepressants and recreational drugs
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Dopamine Transporter
NM_001044NM_010020RefSeq (protein)NP_001035NP_034150Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 1.39 – 1.45 Mb Chr 13: 73.54 – 73.58 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol. In the cytosol, other transporters sequester the dopamine into vesicles for storage and later release. Dopamine
Dopamine
reuptake via DAT provides the primary mechanism through which dopamine is cleared from synapses, although there may be an exception in the prefrontal cortex, where evidence points to a possibly larger role of the norepinephrine transporter.[5] DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and alcoholism
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