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United States Adopted Name
UNITED STATES ADOPTED NAMES are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States . Each name is assigned by the USAN Council, which is co-sponsored by the American Medical Association (AMA), the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), and the American Pharmacists Association (APhA). The USAN Program states that its goal is to select simple, informative, and unique nonproprietary names (also called generic names) for drugs by establishing logical nomenclature classifications based on pharmacological or chemical relationships. In addition to drugs, the USAN Council names agents for gene therapy and cell therapy, contact lens polymers , surgical materials, diagnostics, carriers, and substances used as an excipient
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Alpha-2B Adrenergic Receptor
2CVA IDENTIFIERS ALIASES ADRA2B, ADRA2L1, ADRA2RL1, ADRARL1, ALPHA2BAR, alpha-2BAR, FAME2, adrenoceptor alpha 2B EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 87935 HomoloGene: 553 GeneCards: ADRA2B GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome
Chromosome
2 (human) BAND 2q11.2 START 96,112,875 bp END 96,116,245 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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Alpha-2A Adrenergic Receptor
1HLL, 1HO9, 1HOD, 1HOF IDENTIFIERS ALIASES ADRA2A, ADRA2, ADRA2R, ADRAR, ALPHA2AAR, ZNF32, adrenoceptor alpha 2A EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 87934 HomoloGene: 47944 GeneCards: ADRA2A GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome
Chromosome
10 (human) BAND 10q25.2 START 111,077,163 bp END 111,080,907 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC
IUPAC
is a member. The current software version is 1.05 and was released in January 2017. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License
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Alpha-1B Adrenergic Receptor
NM_000679 NM_001284380 NM_001284381 NM_007416 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_000670 n/a LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 5: 159.92 – 159.97 Mb Chr 5: 43.77 – 43.9 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe ALPHA-1B ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor , and also denotes the human gene encoding it. CONTENTS * 1 Receptor * 2 Gene
Gene
* 3 Ligands * 4 Interactions * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links * 8 Further reading RECEPTORThere are 3 alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas , which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: M(H2O) ≈ 6998180148800000000♠18.01488 g/mol
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux
Linux
, and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc
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Psychosis
PSYCHOSIS is an abnormal condition of the mind that involves a "loss of contact with reality ". People experiencing psychosis may exhibit personality changes and thought disorder . Depending on its severity, this may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior , as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out daily life activities. Psychosis
Psychosis
as a sign of a psychiatric disorder is a diagnosis of exclusion . That is, a new-onset episode of psychosis is not considered a symptom of a psychiatric disorder until other relevant and known causes of psychosis are properly excluded. Medical and biological laboratory tests should exclude central nervous system diseases and injuries, diseases and injuries of other organs, psychoactive substances, and toxins as causes of symptoms of psychosis before any psychiatric illness can be diagnosed
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Schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real . Common symptoms include false beliefs , unclear or confused thinking , hearing voices that others do not hear , reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation . People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety disorders , major depressive illness , or substance-use disorders . Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time. The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age, and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person
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Norepinephrine Transporter
NM_001043 NM_001172501 NM_001172502 NM_001172504 NM_009209 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001034 NP_001165972 NP_001165973 NP_001165975 NP_033235 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 16: 55.66 – 55.71 Mb Chr 16: 92.96 – 93 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe NOREPINEPHRINE TRANSPORTER (NET), also known as SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 6 MEMBER 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene . NET is a monoamine transporter andis responsible for the sodium-chloride (Na+/Cl−)-dependent reuptake of extracellular norepinephrine (NE), which is also known as noradrenaline. NET can also reuptake extracellular dopamine (DA). The reuptake of these two neurotransmitters is essential in regulating concentrations in the synaptic cleft . NETs, along with the other monoamine transporters, are the targets of many antidepressants and recreational drugs
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Dopamine Transporter
NM_001044 NM_010020 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001035 NP_034150 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 5: 1.39 – 1.45 Mb Chr 13: 73.54 – 73.58 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER (also DOPAMINE ACTIVE TRANSPORTER, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol . In the cytosol, other transporters sequester the dopamine into vesicles for storage and later release. Dopamine
Dopamine
reuptake via DAT provides the primary mechanism through which dopamine is cleared from synapses , although there may be an exception in the prefrontal cortex, where evidence points to a possibly larger role of the norepinephrine transporter . DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , bipolar disorder , clinical depression , and alcoholism
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Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor
NM_001322503 NM_001322504 NM_001271759 NM_001271760 NM_001271761 NM_013461 REFSEQ (PROTEIN) NP_000671 NP_001309431 NP_001309432 NP_001309433 NP_150645NP_150646 NP_150647 NP_001258688 NP_001258689 NP_001258690 NP_038489 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 8: 26.75 – 26.87 Mb Chr 8: 66.64 – 66.73 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe ALPHA-1A ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the ALPHA-1C ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor , and also denotes the human gene encoding it. There is no longer a subtype α1C receptor. At one time, there was a subtype known as α1C, but it was found to be identical to the previously discovered α1A receptor subtype. To avoid confusion, the naming convention was continued with the letter D
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Serotonin Transporter
The SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the SODIUM-DEPENDENT SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER and SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 6 MEMBER 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene . SERT is a type of monoamine transporter protein that transports serotonin from the synaptic cleft to the presynaptic neuron. This transport of serotonin by the SERT protein terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner. This protein is the target of many antidepressant medications of the SSRI and Tricyclic antidepressant
Tricyclic antidepressant
classes. It is a member of the sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family. A repeat length polymorphism in the promoter of this gene has been shown to affect the rate of serotonin uptake and may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome , aggressive behavior in Alzheimer disease patients, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression-susceptibility in people experiencing emotional trauma
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Pfizer
Coordinates : 41°20′04″N 72°04′05″W / 41.3343429°N 72.06795°W / 41.3343429; -72.06795 PFIZER INC. /ˈfaɪzər/ is an American pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City
New York City
, with its research headquarters in Groton , Connecticut. It is among the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
, and its shares have been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
since 2004. Pfizer
Pfizer
develops and produces medicines and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines, including immunology , oncology , cardiology , diabetology/endocrinology, and neurology
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