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Theodor Herzl
Theodor Herzl
Theodor Herzl
(Hebrew: תאודור הֶרְצֵל‬ Te'odor Hertsel, Hungarian: Herzl Tivadar; May 2, 1860 – July 3, 1904), Hebrew name given at his brit milah Binyamin Ze'ev (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב‬),[1] also known in Hebrew
Hebrew
as חוֹזֵה הַמְדִינָה‬, Chozeh HaMedinah (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was the father of modern political Zionism. Herzl formed the Zionist
Zionist
Organization and promoted Jewish immigration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state. Though he died before its establishment, he is known as the father of the State of Israel. While Herzl is specifically mentioned in the Israeli Declaration of Independence and is officially referred to as "the spiritual father of the Jewish State",[2] i.e
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History Of The Jews In France
Traditional Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino and other Jewish languages
Jewish languages
(most endangered and some now extinct) Liturgical languages Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages French, Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, Yiddish, RussianReligionJudaismRelated ethnic groups Sephardi
Sephardi
Jews, Mizrahi
Mizrahi
Jews, Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisionsThe history of the Jews
Jews
in France
France
deals with the Jews
Jews
and Jewish communities in France. There has been a Jewish presence in France since at least the early Middle Ages. France
France
was a center of Jewish learning in the Middle Ages, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on, including multiple expulsions and returns
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Serbia
Coordinates: 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian) Republika Srbija  (Serbian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Боже правде / Bože pravde" "God of Justice"Location of Serbia
Serbia
(green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo
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Typhus
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.[1] Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash.[1] Typically these begin one to two weeks after exposure.[2] The diseases are caused by specific types of bacterial infection.[1] Epidemic typhus
Epidemic typhus
is due to Rickettsia prowazekii<
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Hungary
Coordinates: 47°N 20°E / 47°N 20°E / 47; 20Hungary Magyarország  (Hungarian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Himnusz" (Hungarian)[1] "Hymn"Location of  Hungary  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Budapest 47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433°N 19.250°E / 47.433; 19.250Official language and national language Hungarian[2]Ethnic groups (2011)80.7% Hungarians 14.7% not declared 3.1% Roma 1.3% Germans[3]Religion52.9% Christianity –38.9% Catholicism –13.7% Protestantism –0.1% Orthodox Church 0.1% Judaism 1.7% other 18.2% not religious 27.2% unanswered[4]Demonym HungarianGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentJános Áder• Prime MinisterViktor O
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Kingdom Of Hungary
Magyar Királyság  (Hungarian) Regnum Hungariae  (Latin) Königreich Ungarn  (German)1000–1918 1920–1946Flag (1867-1918)Coat of armsMotto Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae[1] "Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"Anthem Himnusz HymnRoyal anthem God save, God protect Our Emperor, Our Country!Kingdoms of Hungary (dark green) and Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914Capital BudapestHistorical capitals:Esztergom (10th to mid-13th century) Buda (mid-13th century to 1541)a Pressburg (1536–1783) Debrecen (1849) Székesfehérvár (place of diets, royal seat, crowning and burial site from 1000 to 1543)Languages Official languages:Latin (1000–1784; 1790–1844) German (1784–1790; 1849–1867) Hungarian (1836–1849; 1867–1946)Other spoken languages: Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, Italian, Ruthenian, Carpathian Romani,
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Budapest
Budapest
Budapest
(Hungarian: [ˈbudɒpɛʃt] ( listen))[11] is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.[12][13][14] With an estimated 2016 population of 1,759,407 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres (203 square miles), Budapest
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Inner City (Budapest)
Inner City (Hungarian: Belváros; German: Innenstadt) is part of (and more or less equivalent with) the historic old town of Pest. Until 1949, Inner City was the 4th District. Today it is one of the two neighbourhoods of the District V of Budapest, Hungary, the other one being Lipótváros ("Leopold Town") which is the political and financial centre of Hungary. Budapest's main shopping street, Váci utca ("Váci Street") is located in the District V, as is the large part of the city's commercial life, banks and travel agencies.[1] Many tourists start sightseeing there. Today a colloquial definition of inner city (or city centre, both with lower case letters) also exists according to which the city centre of Budapest in a broader sense is bordered by the Grand Boulevard on Pest side of the city
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Kingdom Of Hungary (1526–1867)
The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804. After the Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács
of 1526, the country was ruled by two crowned kings (John I and Ferdinand I). Initially the exact territory under Habsburg rule was disputed because both rulers claimed the whole kingdom
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Ferdinand De Lesseps
Ferdinand Marie, Vicomte de Lesseps GCSI (French: [də lesɛps]; 19 November 1805 – 7 December 1894) was a French diplomat and later developer of the Suez
Suez
Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas, substantially reducing sailing distances and times between Europe
Europe
and East Asia. He attempted to repeat this success with an effort to build a Panama Canal at sea level during the 1880s, but the project was devastated by epidemics of malaria and yellow fever in the area, as well as beset by financial problems, and the planned de Lesseps Panama Canal
Panama Canal
was never completed. Eventually, the project was bought out by the United States, which solved the medical problems and changed the design to a non-sea level canal with locks
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Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century CE.[1] In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi
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Suez Canal
The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
(Arabic: قناة السويس‎ qanāt as-suwēs) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company
Suez Canal Company
between 1859 and 1869, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869. The canal offers watercraft a shorter journey between the North Atlantic
Atlantic
and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Red seas by avoiding the South Atlantic
Atlantic
and southern Indian oceans, in turn reducing the journey by approximately 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi)
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Bildung
Bildung (German: [ˈbɪldʊŋ], "education, formation, etc.") refers to the German tradition of self-cultivation (as related to the German for: creation, image, shape), wherein philosophy and education are linked in a manner that refers to a process of both personal and cultural maturation. This maturation is described as a harmonization of the individual's mind and heart and in a unification of selfhood and identity within the broader society, as evidenced with the literary tradition of Bildungsroman. In this sense, the process of harmonization of mind, heart, selfhood and identity is achieved through personal transformation, which presents a challenge to the individual's accepted beliefs. In Hegel's writings, the challenge of personal growth often involves an agonizing alienation from one's "natural consciousness" that leads to a reunification and development of the self
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Antisemitism
Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.[1][2][3] A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism.[4][5] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews
Jews
to organized pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents
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Journalism
Journalism
Journalism
is the production and the distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation (professional or not), the methods of gathering information, and the organizing literary styles. Journalistic media include: print, television, radio, Internet, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media is controlled by a government intervention, and is not a fully independent body.[1] In others, the news media is independent from the government but the profit motive is in tension with constitutional protections of freedom of the press. Access to freely available information gathered by independent and competing journalistic enterprises with transparent editorial standards can enable citizens to effectively participate in the political process
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Austro-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
or the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary ( Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867
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