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Theodolite
An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveyingA theodolite /θiːˈɒdəlaɪt/ is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications, and have been adapted for specialized purposes such as meteorology and rocket launch.[1] A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes: the horizontal or trunnion axis and the zenith axis. A theodolite measures vertical angles as angles between the zenith, forwards or plunged—typically approximately 90 and 270 degrees. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically to milliradian or seconds of arc. A theodolite may be either transit or non-transit
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Angle
2D anglesRight Interior Exterior2D angle pairsAdjacent Vertical Complementary Supplementary Transversal3D anglesDihedralAn angle formed by two rays emanating from a vertex.In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.[1] Angles formed by two rays lie in a plane, but this plane does not have to be a Euclidean plane. Angles are also formed by the intersection of two planes in Euclidean and other spaces. These are called dihedral angles. Angles formed by the intersection of two curves in a plane are defined as the angle determined by the tangent rays at the point of intersection. Similar statements hold in space, for example, the spherical angle formed by two great circles on a sphere is the dihedral angle between the planes determined by the great circles. Angle
Angle
is also used to designate the measure of an angle or of a rotation
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Altazimuth Mount
An altazimuth or alt-azimuth mount is a simple two-axis mount for supporting and rotating an instrument about two perpendicular axes – one vertical and the other horizontal. Rotation about the vertical axis varies the azimuth (compass bearing) of the pointing direction of the instrument
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Martin Waldseemüller
Martin Waldseemüller
Martin Waldseemüller
(Latinized as Martinus Ilacomylus, Ilacomilus or Hylacomylus; 11 September 1470 – 16 March 1520) was a German cartographer. He and Matthias Ringmann
Matt

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Cartographer
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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New Latin
New Latin
Latin
(also called Neo-Latin[1] or Modern Latin)[2] was a revival in the use of Latin
Latin
in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin
Latin
is often viewed as still existing and subject to new word formation
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Supine
In grammar, a supine is a form of verbal noun used in some languages. The term is most often used for Latin. It is one of the four principal parts.Contents1 Latin 2 Germanic languages 3 Finnic languages 4 Romance languages 5 Slavic languages 6 Baltic languages 7 References 8 See alsoLatin[edit] See also: Latin
Latin
conjugation § Supine, and Latin
Latin
syntax § The supine There are two supines, I (first) and II (second). They are originally the accusative and ablative forms of a verbal noun in the fourth declension, respectively. The first supine ends in -um. It has two uses. The first is with verbs of motion and indicates purpose. For example, "Gladiatores adierunt pugnatum" is Latin
Latin
for "The gladiators have come to fight", and "Nuntii gratulatum et cubitum venerunt" is Latin
Latin
for "The messengers came to congratulate and to sleep"
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Azimuth
An azimuth (/ˈæzɪməθ/ ( listen)) (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth. An example of azimuth is the angular direction of a star in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the local horizontal area (e.g. a circular area 5 km in radius around an observer at sea level), and the reference vector points north. The azimuth is the angle between the north vector and the star's vector on the horizontal plane.[1] Azimuth
Azimuth
is usually measured in degrees (°)
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Sic
The Latin
Latin
adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written")[1] inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription. The usual usage is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in quoted material do not arise from errors in the course of the transcription, but are intentionally reproduced, exactly as they appear in the source text
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Graphometer
The graphometer, semicircle or semicircumferentor is a surveying instrument used for angle measurements. It consists of a semicircular limb divided into 180 degrees and sometimes subdivided into minutes. The limb is subtended by the diameter with two sights at its ends. In the middle of the diameter a "box and needle" (compass) is fixed. On the same middle the alidade with two other sights is fitted. The device is mounted on a staff via a ball and socket joint. In effect the device is a half-circumferentor. For convenience, sometimes another half-circle from 180 to 360 degrees may be graduated in another line on the limb.[1] The form was introduced in Philippe Danfrie's, Déclaration de l’usage du graphomètre (Paris, 1597) and the term "graphometer" was popular with French geodesists. The preferable English-language terms were semicircle or semicircumferentor
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Cyclopaedia, Or An Universal Dictionary Of Arts And Sciences
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London
London
in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English
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U.S. National Geodetic Survey
The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly the United States Survey of the Coast (1807–1836), United States Coast Survey
Coast Survey
(1836–1878), and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) (1878–1970), is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science and engineering. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), of the United States Department of Commerce. The National Geodetic Survey's history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA
NOAA
offices. As the U.S
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Arcsecond
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree. Since one degree is 1/360 of a turn (or complete rotation), one minute of arc is 1/7004216000000000000♠21600 of a turn. A minute of arc is π/7004108000000000000♠10800 of a radian. A second of arc, arcsecond (arcsec), or arc second is 1/60 of an arcminute, 1/7003360000000000000♠3600 of a degree, 1/7006129600000000000♠1296000 of a turn, and π/7005648000000000000♠648000 (about 1/7005206265000000000♠206265) of a radian
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Triangulation
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points. Specifically in surveying, triangulation per se involves only angle measurements, rather than measuring distances to the point directly as in trilateration; the use of both angles and distance measurements is referred to as triangulateration.Contents1 Applications 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesApplications[edit] Optical 3D measuring systems use this principle as well in order to determine the spatial dimensions and the geometry of an item. Basically, the configuration consists of two sensors observing the item. One of the sensors is typically a digital camera device, and the other one can also be a camera or a light projector. The projection centers of the sensors and the considered point on the object’s surface define a (spatial) triangle. Within this triangle, the distance between the sensors is the base b and must be known
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