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Theodicy
THEODICY (/θiːˈɒdɪsi/ ), in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God
God
permits the manifestation of evil . Some theodicies also address the evidential problem of evil by attempting "to make the existence of an all-knowing , all-powerful and all-good or omnibenevolent God
God
consistent with the existence of evil" or suffering in the world. Unlike a defense, which tries to demonstrate that God\'s existence is logically possible in the light of evil, a theodicy attempts to provide a framework wherein God's existence is also plausible. The German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
coined the term "theodicy" in 1710 in his work Théodicée , though various responses to the problem of evil had been previously proposed
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Dualistic Cosmology
DUALISTIC COSMOLOGY is a collective term . Many variant myths and creation motifs are so described in ethnographic and anthropological literature. These motifs conceive the world as being created, organized, or influenced by two demiurges , culture heroes , or other mythological beings, who either compete with each other or have a complementary function in creating, arranging or influencing the world. There is a huge diversity of such cosmologies. In a Chukchi example, the two beings do not compete, rather collaborate. They contribute to the creation in a coequal way. They are neither collateral nor consanguineous relatives. In many other instances the two beings are not of the same importance or power (sometimes, one of them is even characterized as gullible). Sometimes they can be contrasted as good versus evil. They may be often believed to be twins or at least brothers. Dualistic motifs in mythologies can be observed in all inhabited continents
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Mother Goddess
A MOTHER GODDESS is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature , motherhood , fertility , creation , destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth
Earth
. When equated with the Earth
Earth
or the natural world, such goddesses are sometimes referred to as MOTHER EARTH or as the EARTH MOTHER. There is difference of opinion between the academic and the popular conception of the term. The popular view is mainly driven by the Goddess movement and reads that primitive societies initially were matriarchal , worshipping a sovereign, nurturing, motherly earth goddess . This was based upon the nineteenth-century ideas of unilineal evolution of Johann Jakob Bachofen . According to the academic view, however, both Bachofen and the modern Goddess theories are a projection of contemporary world views on ancient myths, rather than attempting to understand the mentalité of that time
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God In Islam
In Islamic theology , GOD (Arabic : الله‎, translit. Allāh , contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god ") is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence. Islam
Islam
emphasizes that God
God
is strictly singular (tawḥīd  ): unique (wāḥid ), inherently One (aḥad ), also all-merciful and omnipotent. According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne and according to the Quran
Quran
, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things." The Surat 112 Al-'Ikhlās (The Sincerity) says: "He is God, One. God, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent." In Islam, there are 99 known names of God
God
(al-asmāʼ al-ḥusná lit
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Creator In Buddhism
Buddhist
Buddhist
thought consistently rejects the notion of a creator deity . It teaches the concept of gods, heavens and rebirths in its Saṃsāra doctrine, but it considers none of these gods as a creator. Buddhism
Buddhism
posits that mundane deities such as Mahabrahma are misconstrued to be a creator. CONTENTS * 1 Early Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
* 2 Mahabrahma * 3 Medieval philosophers * 3.1 Vasubandhu * 3.2 Others * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography EARLY BUDDHIST TEXTSAccording to Buddhologist Richard Hayes , the early Buddhist
Buddhist
Nikaya literature treats the question of the existence of a creator god "primarily from either an epistemological point of view or a moral point of view"
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Indian Religions
Indian religions
Indian religions
as a percentage of world population Hinduism
Hinduism
(15%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(7.1%) Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.35%) Jainism
Jainism
(0.06%) Other (77.49%) INDIAN RELIGIONS, sometimes also termed as DHARMIC faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent ; namely Hinduism
Hinduism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Sikhism
Sikhism
. These religions are also all classified as Eastern religions . Although Indian religions
Indian religions
are connected through the history of India
India
, they constitute a wide range of religious communities, and are not confined to the Indian subcontinent
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Shangdi
MODEL HUMANITY: * Xian * Zhenren * Wen and wu Practices * Fenxiang * Jingxiang * Feng shui
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Tian
MODEL HUMANITY: * Xian * Zhenren * Wen and wu Practices * Fenxiang * Jingxiang * Feng shui
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Chinese Theology
MODEL HUMANITY: * Xian * Zhenren * Wen and wu Practices * Fenxiang * Jingxiang * Feng shui
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God In The Bahá'í Faith
The BAHá\\'í VIEW OF GOD is essentially monotheistic . God
God
is the imperishable, uncreated being who is the source of all existence. He is described as "a personal God
God
, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient , omnipresent and almighty ". Though transcendent and inaccessible directly, his image is reflected in his creation. The purpose of creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator. God
God
communicates his will and purpose to humanity through intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God
God
, who are the prophets and messengers that have founded religions from prehistoric times up to the present day
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Deus
DEUS ( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: ) is Latin
Latin
for "god " or "deity ". Latin deus and dīvus "divine", are descended from Proto-Indo-European *deiwos , "celestial" or "shining", from the same root as *Dyēus , the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon . In Classical Latin
Latin
, deus (feminine dea) was a general noun referring to a deity , while in technical usage a divus or diva was a figure who had become divine, such as a divinized emperor . In Late Latin
Latin
, Deus
Deus
came to be used mostly for the Christian God
God
. It was inherited by the Romance languages
Romance languages
in French Dieu, Spanish Dios, Portuguese and Galician Deus, Italian Dio, etc., and by the Celtic languages in Welsh Duw and Irish Dia
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Creator Deity
A CREATOR DEITY or CREATOR GOD (often called THE CREATOR) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth
Earth
, world , and universe . In monotheism , the single God
God
is often also the creator. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator
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Demiurge
In the Platonic , Neopythagorean , Middle Platonic , and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the DEMIURGE (/ˈdɛmiˌɜːrdʒ/ ) is an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of the physical universe. The term was adopted by the Gnostics . Although a fashioner, the demiurge is not necessarily the same as the creator figure in the monotheistic sense, because the demiurge itself and the material from which the demiurge fashions the universe are both considered to be consequences of something else. Depending on the system, they may be considered to be either uncreated and eternal, or considered to be the product of some other entity. The word "demiurge" is an English word from demiurgus, a Latinized form of the Greek δημιουργός, dēmiourgos which was originally a common noun meaning "craftsman" or "artisan", but gradually it came to mean "producer" and eventually "creator"
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Monad (philosophy)
MONAD (from Greek μονάς monas, "unit" in turn from μόνος monos, "alone"), refers in cosmogony (creation theories) to the first being, divinity , or the totality of all beings. The concept was reportedly conceived by the Pythagoreans and may refer variously to a single source acting alone, or to an indivisible origin, or to both. The concept was later adopted by other philosophers, such as Leibniz , who referred to the monad as an elementary particle . It had a geometric counterpart, which was debated and discussed contemporaneously by the same groups of people
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God The Sustainer
GOD THE SUSTAINER is a theological term referring to the conception of God
God
who sustains and upholds everything in existence. Al Qayyum, sometimes rendered "The Sustainer" is one of the 99 Names of God
God
in Islam . "Creater, Sustainer, Redeemer" is reportedly a "common phrase" in Protestantism in the United States
Protestantism in the United States
, specifically in Baptist liturgy. CONTENTS * 1 Christian theology
Christian theology
* 2 In Islam * 3 Hinduism * 4 Pantheism
Pantheism
and pandeism CHRISTIAN THEOLOGYIn the Christian theology
Christian theology
, the described doctrine is supported by the following biblical and Deuterocanonical references: * Wisdom 11:21-26: “For you love all things that exist, and detest none of the things that you have made; for you would not have made anything if you had hated it
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