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Thebes, Egypt
Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile
Nile
about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome (Sceptre nome) and was the capital of Egypt
Egypt
mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia
Nubia
and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt
Egypt
during its heyday
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Boeotia
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (/biˈoʊʃiə, -ʃə/; Greek: Βοιωτία, Modern Greek: [vi.oˈti.a], Ancient Greek: [bojɔːtía]; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece
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Latinization Of Names
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Egyptian Language
The Egyptian language
Egyptian language
was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian
stage (mid-3rd millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt). Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.[2] Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period. The spoken language evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation
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Scepter
A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English; see spelling differences) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial authority or sovereignty, either right or cruel. The ancient Indian work of Tirukkural
Tirukkural
dedicates a separate chapter each on the ethics of the right sceptre and the evils of the cruel sceptre. According to Valluvar, "it was not his spear but the sceptre which bound a king to his people."[1]Contents1 Antiquity 2 Christian era 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksAntiquity[edit]Statue of Jupiter in the Hermitage, holding the sceptre and orb.Further information: Pharaoh
Pharaoh
§ Scepters and staves The Was and other types of staffs were signs of authority in Ancient Egypt. For this reason they are often described as "sceptres", even if they are full-length staffs
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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Ancient Egyptian Religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as prayers and offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, who was believed to possess a divine power by virtue of their position. He acted as the intermediary between their people and the gods and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe. The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic
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Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Bible
Bible
(from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books")[1] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible
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Book Of Jeremiah
The Book
Book
of Jeremiah
Jeremiah
(Hebrew: ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ‎; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian
Christian
Old Testament.[1] The superscription at chapter 1:1–3 identifies it as "the words of Jeremiah
Jeremiah
son of Hilkiah," and places the prophet historically from the reforms of king Josiah
Josiah
in 627 BC through to the assassination of the Babylonian-appointed governor of Judah in 582.[1] Of all the prophets, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
comes through most clearly as a person, ruminating to his scribe Baruch about his role as a servant of God with little good news for his audience.[2] Jeremiah
Jeremiah
is written in a very complex and poetic Hebrew (apart from verse 10:11, curiously written in Biblical Aramaic)
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Ancient Greek
The ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Eastern Desert
The Eastern Desert
Desert
is the part of the Sahara
Sahara
desert that is located east of the Nile
Nile
river, between the river and the Red Sea.[1][2] It extends from Egypt
Egypt
in the north to Eritrea
Eritrea
in the south, and also comprises parts of Sudan
Sudan
and Ethiopia
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Hellenization
Hellenization
Hellenization
or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
following the campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization
Hellenization
was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin
Mediterranean basin
as far east as modern-day Pakistan
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Homer
Homer
Homer
(/ˈhoʊmər/; Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος Greek pronunciation: [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the legendary author of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad
Iliad
is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
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Iliad
Setting: Troy
Troy
(modern Hisarlik, Turkey) Period: Bronze Age Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC Modern dating: c
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Greece
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), also known as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a sovereign state located in Southern and Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, North Macedonia
North Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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Interpretatio Graeca
Interpretatio graeca
Interpretatio graeca
(Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek [models]") is a discourse[1] in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures. It is thus a comparative methodology that looks for equivalencies and shared characteristics
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