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The Wars For Asia 1911–1949
THE WARS FOR ASIA 1911–1949 by S. C. M. Paine is an award-winning book published in 2012 by Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. The work presents a view of three "nested wars" in early twentieth century East Asia, seen as distinct conflicts which, while carried on simultaneously, had their own welter of cause and dynamic: the Chinese Civil War 1911-1949; the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
1931-1945; the Second World War
Second World War
1941-1945. CONTENT SUMMARYThe principal participants discussed here were Japan , China , and Russia . The first part of Paine's work describes each in terms of their political-economic stance and condition, and their different war aims and strategies. Mention is also made of Germany and the United States
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Manchu
The MANCHU (Manchu : ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff : manju; Abkai : manju; simplified Chinese : 满族; traditional Chinese : 滿族; pinyin : Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles : Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China
China
and the people from whom Manchuria
Manchuria
derives its name. They are sometimes called "RED-TASSELED MANCHUS", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1636–1912) were established by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people
Jurchen people
who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country
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Manchukuo
MANCHUKUO (traditional Chinese : 滿洲國; pinyin : Mǎnzhōuguó; Japanese : 満州国; literally: "State of Manchuria") was a puppet state in Northeast China
China
and Inner Mongolia , which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy . The area, collectively known as Manchuria
Manchuria
by westerners and Japanese, was designated by China
China
's erstwhile Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
as the "homeland" of the ruling family's ethnic group, the Manchus . In 1931, the region was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident and a pro-Japanese government was installed one year later with Puyi
Puyi
, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and emperor. Manchukuo's government was abolished in 1945 after the defeat of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II
World War II

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Republic Of China (1912-1949)
The REPUBLIC OF CHINA was a state in East Asia
East Asia
from 1912 to 1949. It largely occupied the present-day territories of China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, and, for some of its history, Mongolia
Mongolia
. As an era of Chinese history, it was preceded by the last imperial dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, and ended with the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
. After the war, the losing government of the Republic
Republic
of China
China
retreated to the island of Taiwan , while the victorious Communist Party of China
China
established the People\'s Republic
Republic
of China
China
on the Mainland
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Qing Dynasty
Tael (liǎng) PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Later Jin Shun Southern Ming
Southern Ming
Tungning (Ming Zheng) Dzungar Republic of China Mongolia
Mongolia
Formosa The QING DYNASTY, also known as the QING EMPIRE, officially the GREAT QING (English: /tʃɪŋ/ ), was the last imperial dynasty of China , established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China . The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state . The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria . In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners ", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Chinese History
Written records of the HISTORY OF CHINA can be found from as early as 1500 BC under the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC). Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
(ca. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (before 296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC), which had no system of writing on a durable medium, before the Shang. The Yellow River
Yellow River
's Yellow river civilization is said to be the cradle of Chinese civilization, although cultures originated at various regional centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and the Yangtze River 's Yangtze civilization millennia ago in the Neolithic
Neolithic
era
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Fiscal Policy
In economics and political science , FISCAL POLICY is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes ) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy. According to Keynesian economics , when the government changes the levels of taxation and government spending, it influences aggregate demand and the level of economic activity. Fiscal policy
Fiscal policy
is often used to stabilize the economy over the course of the business cycle
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Interregnum
An INTERREGNUM (plural INTERREGNA or INTERREGNUMS) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin inter-, "between" and rēgnum, "reign" ), and the concepts of interregnum and regency therefore overlap. Historically, the longer and heavier interregna were typically accompanied by widespread unrest, civil and succession wars between warlords , and power vacuums filled by foreign invasions or the emergence of a new power. A failed state is usually in interregnum. The term also refers to the periods between the election of a new parliament and the establishment of a new government from that parliament in parliamentary democracies, usually ones that employ some form of proportional representation that allows small parties to elect significant numbers, requiring time for negotiations to form a government
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Communist Party Of China
The COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People\'s Republic of China
China
. The Communist Party of China
China
is the sole governing party of China
China
, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front . It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu
Chen Duxiu
and Li Dazhao . The party grew quickly and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China
China
after the Chinese Civil War , thus leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It also controls the world's largest armed forces, the People\'s Liberation Army
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Mao Zedong
MAO ZEDONG (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), commonly known as CHAIRMAN MAO, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, poet, political theorist and founding father of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism . Mao Zedong was the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan , Hunan . Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
of 1911 and May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
of 1919
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Northern Expedition
Nationalist Government * National Revolutionary Army * Kuomintang * Communist Party of China (Until 1927) Beiyang Government * Fengtian clique * Zhili clique COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Chiang Kai-shek Feng Yuxiang Li Zongren Bai Chongxi He Yingqin Yan Xishan Cen Chunxuan Zhou Enlai Ye Ting Du Xigui V.K
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Second United Front
The SECOND UNITED FRONT was the brief alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party ( Kuomintang
Kuomintang
, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War , which suspended the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
from 1937 to 1941. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Xi\'an Incident * 3 Cooperation during the War of Resistance * 4 Breakdown and aftermath * 5 See also * 6 References BACKGROUNDIn 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang
Kuomintang
following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its cooperation with the CPC during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China
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The Wars For Asia 1911–1949
THE WARS FOR ASIA 1911–1949 by S. C. M. Paine is an award-winning book published in 2012 by Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. The work presents a view of three "nested wars" in early twentieth century East Asia, seen as distinct conflicts which, while carried on simultaneously, had their own welter of cause and dynamic: the Chinese Civil War 1911-1949; the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
1931-1945; the Second World War
Second World War
1941-1945. CONTENT SUMMARYThe principal participants discussed here were Japan , China , and Russia . The first part of Paine's work describes each in terms of their political-economic stance and condition, and their different war aims and strategies. Mention is also made of Germany and the United States
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Mandate Of Heaven
The MANDATE OF HEAVEN (天命) was a Chinese political and religious doctrine used to justify the rule of the emperor of China
China
. According to this belief, heaven (天, Tian )—which embodies the natural order and will of the universe—bestows the mandate on a just ruler , the Son of Heaven . If a ruler was overthrown, this was interpreted as an indication that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate. It was also a common belief that natural disasters such as famine and flood were signs of heaven's displeasure with the ruler, so there would often be revolts following major disasters as citizens saw these as signs that the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
had been withdrawn. The Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
does not require a legitimate ruler to be of noble birth, and dynasties such as the Han and Ming dynasties were founded by men of common origins
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Attack On Pearl Harbor
Coordinates : 21°22′N 157°57′W / 21.367°N 157.950°W / 21.367; -157.950 ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR Part of the Asia and the Pacific Theater of World War II
World War II
Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia . Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho and one over the Naval Yard
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Anti-communism
ANTI-COMMUNISM is opposition to communism . Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia. It reached global dimensions during the Cold War , when the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism
Anti-communism
has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including capitalist , liberal , conservative , fascist , anarchist , and even socialist viewpoints. The first organization specifically dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement , which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the recently established communist government
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