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The Telephone Cases
The Telephone Cases
The Telephone Cases
were a series of U.S. court cases in the 1870s and 1880s related to the invention of the telephone, which culminated in the 1888 decision of the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
upholding the priority of the patents belonging to Alexander Graham Bell. Those telephone patents were relied on by the American Bell Telephone Company and the Bell System—although they had also acquired critical microphone patents from Emile Berliner. The objector (or plaintiff) in the notable Supreme Court case was initially the Western Union
Western Union
telegraph company, which was at the time a far larger and better financed competitor than American Bell Telephone
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Independent Telephone Companies
An independent telephone company was a telephone company providing local service in the United States or Canada that was not part of the Bell System
Bell System
organized by American Telephone and Telegraph. Independent telephone companies usually operated in many rural or sparsely populated areas.Contents1 United States 2 Canada 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksUnited States[edit] The second fundamental Bell patent for telephones expired on 30 January 1894, which provided an opportunity for independent companies to provide telephone services, although some had been established before that date. The Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange company had been formed on 30 October 1891. The first Strowger switch
Strowger switch
went into operation on 3 November 1892 in LaPorte, Indiana, with 75 subscribers and capacity for 99
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Edwin S. Grosvenor
Grosvenor may refer to:Contents1 People 2 Places, buildings and structures 3 Other 4 See alsoPeople[edit] Grosvenor (surname) Hugh Grosvenor, 7th Duke of Westminster Grosvenor Francis
Grosvenor Francis
(1873–1944), Australian politician
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Cornell University
Cornell University
University
(/kɔːrˈnɛl/ kor-NEL) is a private and statutory Ivy League
Ivy League
research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell
Ezra Cornell
and Andrew Dickson White,[7] the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."[1] The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy
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Technology And Culture
Technology
Technology
and Culture is a quarterly academic journal founded in 1959. It is an official publication of the Society for the History
History
of Technology
Technology
(SHOT), whose members routinely refer to it as "T&C." Besides scholarly articles and critical essays, the journal publishes reviews of books and museum exhibitions. Occasionally, the journal publishes thematic issues; topics have included patents, gender and technology, and ecology. Technology
Technology
and Culture has had three past editors-in-chief: Melvin Kranzberg
Melvin Kranzberg
(1959–1981), Robert C. Post (1982–1995), and John M. Staudenmaier (1996–2010). Since 2011 the journal has been edited at the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
by Prof. Suzanne Moon. Managing editors have included Joan Mentzer, Joseph M. Schultz, David M
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United States Reports
The United States Reports
United States Reports
are the official record (law reports) of the rulings, orders, case tables (list of every case decided, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner (the losing party in lower courts) and by the name of the respondent (the prevailing party below)), and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports
United States Reports
are printed and bound and are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case, prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, and any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially
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Thomas Edison National Historical Park
Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
National Historical Park
National Historical Park
preserves Thomas Edison's laboratory and residence, Glenmont, in Llewellyn Park
Llewellyn Park
in West Orange in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. For more than 40 years, the laboratory had a major impact on the lives of people worldwide. Out of the West Orange laboratories came the motion picture camera, improved phonographs, sound recordings, silent and sound movies and the nickel-iron alkaline electric storage battery. The history of how the site became a National Historical Park
National Historical Park
is complicated. Edison's home was designated as the Edison Home National Historic Site on December 6, 1955. The laboratory was designated as Edison Laboratory National Monument on July 14, 1956
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Claim (patent)
In a patent or patent application, the claims define, in technical terms, the extent, i.e. the scope, of the protection conferred by a patent, or the protection sought in a patent application. In other words, the purpose of the claims is to define which subject-matter is protected by the patent (or sought to be protected by the patent application)
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Western Union
The Western Union
Western Union
Company is an American financial services and communications company. Its headquarters is in Meridian, Colorado, although the postal designation of nearby Englewood is used in its mailing address. Up until it discontinued the service in 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S. company in the business of exchanging telegrams.[3][4] Western Union
Western Union
has several divisions, with products such as person-to-person money transfer, money orders, business payments and commercial services. They offered standard "Cablegrams", as well as more cheerful products such as Candygrams, Dollygrams, and Melodygrams. Western Union, as an industrialized monopoly, dominated the telegraph industry in the late 19th century
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Plaintiff
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy, and if successful, the court will issue judgment in favor of the plaintiff and make the appropriate court order (e.g., an order for damages). "Plaintiff" is the term used in civil cases in most English-speaking jurisdictions, the notable exception being England and Wales, where a plaintiff has, since the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules in 1999, been known as a "claimant", but that term also has other meanings. In criminal cases, the prosecutor brings the case against the defendant, but the key complaining party is often called the "complainant". In some jurisdictions the commencement of a lawsuit is done by filing a summons, claim form or a complaint. These documents are known as pleadings, that set forth the alleged wrongs committed by the defendant or defendants with a demand for relief
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David Fairchild
David Grandison Fairchild (April 7, 1869 – August 6, 1954) was an American botanist and plant explorer. Fairchild was responsible for the introduction of more than 200,000 exotic plants[1] and varieties of established crops into the United States, including soybeans,[2] pistachios,[3] mangos, nectarines, dates, bamboos, and flowering cherries. Certain varieties of wheat,[4] cotton, and rice became especially economically important.Contents1 Background 2 Writings 3 Botanical Citation 4 See also 5 References 6 Other references 7 External linksBackground[edit] Fairchild was born in Lansing, Michigan, and was raised in Manhattan, Kansas. He was a member of the Fairchild family, descendants of Thomas Fairchild of Stratford, Connecticut. He graduated from Kansas
Kansas
State College of Agriculture
Agriculture
(B.A. 1888, M.S. 1889) where his father, George Fairchild, was president
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Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (II)
Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II
Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II
(September 17, 1825 – January 23, 1893) was an American politician, diplomat, and jurist. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi
Mississippi
in both houses of Congress, served as the United States
United States
Secretary of the Interior, and was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He also served as an official in the Confederate States of America. Born and educated in Georgia, he moved to Oxford, Mississippi
Mississippi
to establish a legal practice. He was elected to the United States
United States
House of Representatives in 1856 and served until December 1860, when he helped draft Mississippi's Ordinance of Secession
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Stanley Matthews (lawyer)
Thomas Stanley Matthews (July 21, 1824 – March 22, 1889), known as Stanley Matthews, was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from May 1881 to his death in 1889. Matthews was the Court's 46th justice. Before his appointment to the Court by President James A. Garfield, Matthews served as a senator from his home state of Ohio.Contents1 Career 2 Important decisions 3 Family 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksCareer[edit] Matthews was born in Cincinnati, Ohio
Ohio
and studied at Kenyon College. He practiced law in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
before moving to Maury County, Tennessee, where he practiced from 1840 to 1845. After editing the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Herald for two years from 1846 to 1848, Matthews was selected to serve as the clerk of the Ohio
Ohio
House of Representatives and as a county judge in Hamilton County
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Morrison Waite
Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio. He served as the seventh Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States
from 1874 to his death in 1888. During his tenure, the Waite Court
Waite Court
took a narrow interpretation of federal authority related to laws and amendments that were passed during the Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
to expand the rights of freedmen and protect them from attacks by vigilante groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Born in Lyme, Connecticut, Waite established a legal practice in Toledo, Ohio
Ohio
after graduating from Yale University. As a member of the Whig Party, Waite won election to the Ohio
Ohio
Senate. An opponent of slavery, he helped establish the Ohio
Ohio
Republican Party
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Samuel Freeman Miller
Samuel Freeman Miller
Samuel Freeman Miller
(April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890) was an associate justice of the United States
United States
Supreme Court who served from 1862 to 1890. He was a physician and lawyer.Contents1 Early life, education, and medical career 2 Career 3 Personal 4 List of most notable opinions 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingEarly life, education, and medical career[edit] Born in Richmond, Kentucky, Miller was the son of yeoman farmer Frederick Miller and his wife Patsy. He earned a medical degree in 1838 from Transylvania University
Transylvania University
in Lexington, Kentucky. While practicing medicine for a decade in Barbourville, Kentucky, he studied the law on his own and was admitted to the bar in 1847
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