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The School Of Athens
The School of Athens
The School of Athens
(Italian: Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican
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Zeno Of Citium
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium
(/ˈziːnoʊ/; Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
thinker[3] from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.[4] Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens
Athens
from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism
Stoicism
laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue
Virtue
in accordance with Nature. It proved very popular, and flourished as one of the major schools of philosophy from the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period through to the Roman era.Contents1 Life 2 Philosophy2.1 Logic 2.2 Physics 2.3 Ethics3 Works 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Zeno was born c
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Ethics (Aristotle)
[*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spuriousv t eFirst page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
in Greek and LatinThe Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
(/ˌnɪkoʊˈmækiən/; Ancient Greek: Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics. The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum. The title is often assumed to refer to his son Nicomachus, to whom the work was dedicated or who may have edited it (although his young age makes this less likely). Alternatively, the work may have been dedicated to his father, who was also called Nicomachus. The theme of the work is a Socratic question previously explored in the works of Plato, Aristotle's friend and teacher, of how men should best live
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Protogenes
Protogenes
Protogenes
(/proʊˈtɒdʒəˌniːz/; Greek: Πρωτογένης; fl. 4th century BC) was an ancient Greek painter, a contemporary rival of Apelles. As with the other famous ancient Greek painters, none of his work has survived, and it is known only from literary references and (brief) descriptions. Biography[edit] Protogenes
Protogenes
was born in Caunus, on the coast of Caria
Caria
but resided in Rhodes
Rhodes
during the latter half of the 4th century BC. He was celebrated for the minute and laborious finish which he bestowed on his pictures, both in drawing and in color
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Tondo (art)
A tondo (plural "tondi" or "tondos") is a Renaissance
Renaissance
term for a circular work of art, either a painting or a sculpture. The word derives from the Italian rotondo, "round." The term is usually not used in English for small round paintings, but only those over about 60 cm (two feet) in diameter, thus excluding many round portrait miniatures – for sculpture the threshold is rather lower.Contents1 History 2 Examples 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksHistory[edit] Artists have created tondi since Greek antiquity. The circular paintings in the centre of painted vases of that period are known as tondi, and the inside of the broad low winecup called a kylix also lent itself to circular enframed compositions.[1] The style was revived in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, particularly in Italy, where it may have developed from the smaller desco da parto or birthing tray.[2] Since then it has been less common
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Alcibiades
Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae (/ˌælsɪˈbaɪ.ədiːz/;[1] Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnídēs; c. 450–404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. He was the last famous member of his mother's aristocratic family, the Alcmaeonidae, which fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War. He played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor, military commander, and politician. During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
changed his political allegiance several times. In his native Athens
Athens
in the early 410s BC, he advocated an aggressive foreign policy and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition, but he fled to Sparta
Sparta
after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him
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Monad (philosophy)
Monad (from Greek μονάς monas, "singularity" in turn from μόνος monos, "alone"),[1] refers in cosmogony (creation theories) to the first being, divinity, or the totality of all beings. The concept was reportedly conceived by the Pythagoreans
Pythagoreans
and may refer variously to a single source acting alone, or to an indivisible origin, or to both. The concept was later adopted by other philosophers, such as Leibniz, who referred to the monad as an elementary particle
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Fresco
Fresco
Fresco
(plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. Water
Water
is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall. The word fresco (Italian: affresco) is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", and may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco
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Epicurus
Epicurus
Epicurus
(/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs, ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/;[2] Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that the root of all human neurosis was death denial, and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy
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Donato Bramante
Donato Bramante
Donato Bramante
(1444 – 11 March 1514),[1] born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio[2] and also known as Bramante Lazzari,[3][4] was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
to Milan and the High Renaissance
High Renaissance
style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo
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Boethius
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius,[a] commonly called Boethius[b] (English: /boʊˈiːθiəs/; also Boetius /-ʃəs/; c. 480–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century
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Pope Julius II
Pope
Pope
Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope"[1] and "The Warrior Pope". During his nine-year pontificate his military and diplomatic interventions averted a take-over by France
France
of the Italian States (including the Papal States). He also proved a bulwark against Venetian expansionism.[2] His spiritual leadership was less impressive. The quintessential "Renaissance pope", Julius' rule from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513 was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage of the arts. He commissioned the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, and Michelangelo's decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
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Duke Of Mantua
Timeline Italy portalv t eDuring his history as independent entity, Mantua
Mantua
knew different rulers, who governed on the city and the lands of Mantua
Mantua
from Middle Ages to early modern period. Since 970 to 1115, the Counts of Mantua
Mantua
were members of the House of Canossa. During its time as free commune and signoria ("lordship"), the Lords of Mantua
Mantua
were exponents of the Bonacolsi
Bonacolsi
and Gonzaga families. From 1328, Mantua
Mantua
was informally led by Gonzagas until 1433, when Gianfrancesco Gonzaga assumed the noble title of Marquess of Mantua. In 1530, Federico II received the title of Duke of Mantua. In 1531, the family acquired the vacant Marquisate of Montferrat
Marquisate of Montferrat
through marriage. In 1627, Duke Vincent II deceased without heirs, ending the original line of Gonzagas
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Evangelism
In Christianity, Evangelism
Evangelism
is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel
Gospel
with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are often known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case. Some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position; they may be found preaching to large meetings or in governance roles. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelistic or evangelist
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Heinrich Wölfflin
Heinrich Wölfflin
Heinrich Wölfflin
(German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈvœlflɪn]; 21 June 1864, Winterthur
Winterthur
– 19 July 1945, Zurich) was a Swiss art historian, whose objective classifying principles ("painterly" vs. "linear" and the like) were influential in the development of formal analysis in art history in the early 20th century. He taught at Basel, Berlin and Munich in the generation that raised German art history to pre-eminence
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Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(Italian: [ˈdʒordʒo vaˈzaːri]; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.Contents1 Early life 2 Painting 3 Architecture 4 The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects 5 Social standing 6 Public collections 7 Gallery 8 References and sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Vasari was born in Arezzo, Tuscany.[
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