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The School Of Athens
THE SCHOOL OF ATHENS (Italian : Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael
Raphael
. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello , in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican . The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens, representing Philosophy, was probably the second painting to be finished there, after La Disputa (Theology) on the opposite wall, and the Parnassus (Literature). The picture has long been seen as "Raphael's masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance"
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Federico II Gonzaga, Duke Of Mantua
FEDERICO II OF GONZAGA (May 17, 1500 – August 28, 1540) was the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua
Mantua
(first as Marquis , later as Duke ) from 1519 until his death. He was also Marquis of Montferrat from 1536. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family and issue * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY Federico II soon after becoming a hostage, by Francesco Francia He was a son of his predecessor Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua
Mantua
and Isabella d\'Este . Federico Gonzaga was crowned Marquis Mantua
Mantua
on 3 April 1519, initially under the regency of his mother and his uncles Sigismondo and Giovanni Gonzaga . He received the imperial investiture from emperor Charles V on April 7, 1521
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Zeno Of Citium
ZENO OF CITIUM (/ˈziːnoʊ/ ; Greek : Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus
Cyprus
, and probably of Phoenician descent. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens
Athens
from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics , Stoicism
Stoicism
laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue
Virtue
in accordance with Nature
Nature
. It proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy from the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period through to the Roman era
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Epicurus
EPICURUS (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/ ; Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called Epicureanism
Epicureanism
. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia —peace and freedom from fear—and aponia —the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends
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Boethius
ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS BOëTHIUS, commonly called BOETHIUS (English: /boʊˈiːθiəs/ ; also BOETIUS /boʊˈiːʃəs/ ; c. 480–524 AD), was a Roman senator , consul , magister officiorum , and philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born four years after Odoacer
Odoacer
deposed the last Roman Emperor and declared himself King of Italy , and entered public service under Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great , who later imprisoned and executed him in 524 on charges of conspiracy to overthrow him. While jailed, Boethius
Boethius
composed his Consolation of Philosophy , a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

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Heinrich Wölfflin
HEINRICH WöLFFLIN (German: ; 21 June 1864, Winterthur
Winterthur
– 19 July 1945, Zurich
Zurich
) was a Swiss art historian , whose objective classifying principles ("painterly " vs. "linear" and the like) were influential in the development of formal analysis in art history in the early 20th century. He taught at Basel, Berlin and Munich in the generation that raised German art history to pre-eminence. His three great books, still consulted, are Renaissance und Barock (1888), Die Klassische Kunst (1898, "Classic Art"), and Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe (1915, "Principles of Art History")
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Evangelism
EVANGELISM is the preaching of the gospel with the intention of exposing God's love to all mankind through Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are often known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case. Some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position; they may be found preaching to large meetings or in governance roles. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelistic or evangelist. The scriptures do not use the word evangelism, but evangelist is used in (the translations of) Acts 21:8, Ephesians 4:11, and 2 Timothy 4:5
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Monad (philosophy)
MONAD (from Greek μονάς monas, "unit" in turn from μόνος monos, "alone"), refers in cosmogony (creation theories) to the first being, divinity , or the totality of all beings. The concept was reportedly conceived by the Pythagoreans and may refer variously to a single source acting alone, or to an indivisible origin, or to both. The concept was later adopted by other philosophers, such as Leibniz , who referred to the monad as an elementary particle . It had a geometric counterpart, which was debated and discussed contemporaneously by the same groups of people
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Pope Julius II
POPE JULIUS II (Italian : Papa Giulio II; Latin : Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", born GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE , was Pope
Pope
from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. His papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts—he commissioned the destruction and rebuilding of St. Peter\'s Basilica , plus Michelangelo
Michelangelo
's decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
. In addition to an active military policy, he personally led troops into battle on at least two occasions
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Duke Of Mantua
Timeline Italy portal * v * t * e During his history as independent entity, Mantua
Mantua
knew different RULERS, who governed on the city and the lands of Mantua
Mantua
from Middle Ages to early modern period . Since 970 to 1115, the COUNTS OF MANTUA were members of the House of Canossa . During its time as free commune and signoria ("lordship"), the LORDS OF MANTUA were exponents of the Bonacolsi and Gonzaga families. From 1328, Mantua
Mantua
was informally led by Gonzagas until 1433, when Gianfrancesco Gonzaga assumed the noble title of MARQUESS OF MANTUA. In 1530, Federico II received the title of DUKE OF MANTUA. In 1531, the family acquired the vacant Marquisate of Montferrat through marriage. In 1627, Duke Vincent II deceased without heirs, ending the original line of Gonzagas
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Alcibiades
ALCIBIADES, SON OF CLEINIAS, from the deme of Scambonidae (/ˌælsᵻˈbaɪ.ədiːz/ ; Greek : Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnídēs; c. 450–404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator , and general . He was the last famous member of his mother's aristocratic family, the Alcmaeonidae , which fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
. He played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor, military commander, and politician. During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
changed his political allegiance several times
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Alexander The Great
ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas Koine Greek: ), was a king (basileus ) of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty . He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece
Greece
to northwestern India
India
. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders
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Nicomachus
NICOMACHUS OF GERASA (Greek : Νικόμαχος; c. 60 – c. 120 CE) was an important ancient mathematician best known for his works Introduction to Arithmetic and Manual of Harmonics in Greek . He was born in Gerasa
Gerasa
, in the Roman province of Syria (now Jerash
Jerash
, Jordan ), and was strongly influenced by Aristotle
Aristotle
. He was a Neopythagorean , who wrote about the mystical properties of numbers. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 2.1 Introduction to Arithmetic * 2.2 Manual of Harmonics * 2.3 Lost works * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links LIFELittle is known about the life of Nicomachus except that he was a Pythagorean who came from Gerasa
Gerasa
. Historians consider him a Neopythagorean based on his tendency to view the numbers having mystical properties. The age in which he lived (c
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Michelangelo
MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI (/ˌmaɪkəlˈændʒəloʊ/ ; Italian: ; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence , who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art . Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since been described as one of the greatest artists of all time. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man , along with his rival and fellow Florentine Medici client, Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
. A number of Michelangelo's works of painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence
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Aeschines Of Sphettus
AESCHINES OF SPHETTUS (Greek : Αἰσχίνης Σφήττιος) or AESCHINES SOCRATICUS (sometimes but now rarely written as Aischines or Æschines; c. 425 BC – c. 350 BC), son of Lysanias, of the deme Sphettus of Athens
Athens
, was in his youth a follower of Socrates
Socrates
. Historians call him Aeschines Socraticus—"the Socratic Aeschines"—to distinguish him from the more historically influential Athenian orator also named Aeschines . CONTENTS * 1 Aeschines and Socrates
Socrates
* 2 Socratic dialogues * 3 Anecdotes * 4 Scholarship * 5 References * 6 Further reading AESCHINES AND SOCRATESAccording to Plato
Plato
, Aeschines of Sphettus was present at the trial and execution of Socrates
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