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The New England Journal Of Medicine
The New England Journal of Medicine
Medicine
(NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society
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ISO 4
ISO 4 (Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications) is an international standard which defines a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial titles, i.e., titles of publications such as scientific journals that are published in regular installments.[1] The ISSN
ISSN
International Centre, which the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) has appointed as the registration authority for ISO 4, maintains the "List of Title Word Abbreviations" (LTWA), which contains standard abbreviations for words commonly found in serial titles. As of August 2017, the standard's most recent update came in 1997[2], when its third edition was released.[3] One major use of ISO 4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals using the List of Title Word Abbreviations (LTWA)
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Aminopterin
Aminopterin
Aminopterin
(or 4-aminopteroic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is an antineoplastic drug with immunosuppressive properties often used in chemotherapy. Aminopterin
Aminopterin
is a synthetic derivative of pterin. Aminopterin
Aminopterin
works as an enzyme inhibitor by competing for the folate binding site of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. Its binding affinity for dihydrofolate reductase effectively blocks tetrahydrofolate synthesis. This results in the depletion of nucleotide precursors and inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C
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Platelets
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (thromb- + -cyte, "blood clot cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.[1] Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes[2] of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures,[3][4] 2–3 µm in greatest diameter.[5] Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.[6]The ligands, denoted by letter L, signal for platelets (P) to migrate towards the wound (Site A). As more platelets gather around the opening, they produce more ligands to amplify the response
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Outline Of Academic Disciplines
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is commonly defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications
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Brown-Sequard Syndrome
Brown-Séquard syndrome
Brown-Séquard syndrome
(also known as Brown-Séquard's hemiplegia, Brown-Séquard's paralysis, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis, or spinal hemiparaplegia) is caused by damage to one half of the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis and loss of proprioception on the same (or ipsilateral) side as the injury or lesion, and loss of pain and temperature sensation on the opposite (or contralateral) side as the lesion. It is named after physiologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, who first described the condition in 1850.[1]Contents1 Causes 2 Pathophysiology 3 Diagnosis3.1 Classification3.1.1 Fine (light) touch vs
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Sidney Farber
Sidney Farber
Sidney Farber
(September 30, 1903 – March 30, 1973) was an American pediatric pathologist. He is regarded as the father of modern chemotherapy, and the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute
Dana–Farber Cancer Institute
is named after him.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Research 2.2 Fundraising for cancer research3 Personal life 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] He was born in Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
to Jewish parents Simon and Matilda (Goldstein) Farber.[1] He was the third oldest of 14 siblings. He was the younger brother of the noted philosopher and University of Buffalo professor Marvin Farber (1901–1980).[1] Sidney Farber
Sidney Farber
graduated from SUNY
SUNY
Buffalo in 1923. In the mid-1920s, Jewish students were often refused admission to US medical schools, prompting him to go to Europe
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Leukemia
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.[8] These white blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells.[2] Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising problems, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections.[2] These symptoms occur due to a lack of normal blood cells.[2] Diagnosis is typically made by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy.[2] The exact cause of leukemia is unknown.[4] A combination of genetic factors and environmental (non-inherited) factors are believed to play a role.[4] Risk factors include smoking, ionizing radiation, some chemicals (such as benzene), prior chemotherapy, and Down syndrome.[4][3] People with a family history of leukemia are also at higher risk.[3] There are four main types of leukemia — acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myelo
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Folic Acid
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9,[6] is one of the B vitamins.[4] The recommended daily intake of folate in the US is 400 micrograms from foods or dietary supplements.[7] Folate
Folate
in the form of folic acid is used to treat anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.[4] Folic acid
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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
(ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.[1] Symptoms <
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Paul Zoll
Paul Maurice Zoll (July 15, 1911 – January 5, 1999)[1] was a Jewish[2] American cardiologist and one of the pioneers in the development of the artificial cardiac pacemaker and cardiac defibrillator. He graduated from Boston Latin School
Boston Latin School
in 1928.Contents1 Introduction 2 Youth and education 3 Military service 4 Commitment 5 Family, honors, and finality 6 References 7 External linksIntroduction[edit] Paul Maurice Zoll succeeded in preventing life-threatening disturbances of heart rhythm and in restoring effective heart action to victims about to die from sudden cardiac arrest.He accomplished these feats with the application of indirect and direct electrical shocks that restored life sustaining heart rhythm
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Bone Marrow
Bone
Bone
marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.[2] In birds and mammals, bone marrow is the primary site of new blood cell production or hematopoiesis.[3] It is composed of hematopoietic cells, marrow adipose tissue, and supportive stromal cells. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in an adult having 65 kilograms of mass (143 lb), bone marrow typically accounts for approximately 2.6 kilograms (5.7 lb).[4] Human marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day, which join the systemic circulation via permeable vasculature sinusoids within the medullary cavity.[5] All types of hematopoietic cells, including both myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are created in bone marrow; however, lymphoid cells must migrate to other lymphoid organs (e.g
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Ventricular Asystole
Asystole
Asystole
(1860, from Modern Latin, from Greek privative a "not, without" + systolē "contraction")[1][2] is the absence of ventricular contractions. Asystole
Asystole
is the most serious form of cardiac arrest and is usually irreversible. A cardiac flatline is the state of total cessation of electrical activity from the heart, which means no tissue contraction from the heart muscle and therefore no blood flow to the rest of the body. Asystole
Asystole
should not be confused with very brief pauses in the heart's electrical activity, even those that produce a temporary flat line, in electrical activity that can occur in certain less severe abnormal rhythms. Asystole
Asystole
is different from very fine occurrences of ventricular fibrillation, though both have a poor prognosis, and untreated fine VF will lead to asystole
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Colonoscope
Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy
(/ˌkɒləˈnɒskəpi/) or coloscopy (/kəlˈɒskəpi/)[1] is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera
CCD camera
or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g., ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to 15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous. Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy
is similar to sigmoidoscopy—the difference being related to which parts of the colon each can examine. A colonoscopy allows an examination of the entire colon (1200–1500 mm in length)
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George Polk Awards
The George Polk
George Polk
Awards in Journalism are a series of prestigious[1][2][3] American journalism awards presented annually by Long Island University
Long Island University
in New York in the United States. A writer for Idea Lab, a group blog hosted on the website of PBS, described the award as "one of only a couple of journalism prizes that means anything".[4] The awards were established in 1949 in memory of George Polk, a CBS correspondent who was murdered in 1948 while covering the Greek Civil War (1946–49)
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Internal Medicine
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists, or physicians (without a modifier) in Commonwealth nations
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