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The Jazz Singer
The Jazz
Jazz
Singer is a 1927 American musical film. As the first feature-length motion picture with not only a synchronized recorded music score, but also lip-synchronous singing and speech in several isolated sequences, its release heralded the commercial ascendance of sound films and ended the silent film era. Directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
with its Vitaphone
Vitaphone
sound-on-disc system, the film, featuring six songs performed by Al Jolson, is based on a play of the same name by Samson Raphaelson, adapted from one of his short stories, "The Day of Atonement". The film depicts the fictional story of Jakie Rabinowitz, a young man who defies the traditions of his devout Jewish family. After singing popular tunes in a beer garden he is punished by his father, a hazzan (cantor), prompting Jakie to run away from home
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Hazzan
A hazzan (/ˈhɑːzən/;[1] Hebrew: [χaˈzan]) or chazzan (Hebrew: חַזָּן‎ ḥazzān, plural ḥazzānim; Yiddish
Yiddish
khazn; Ladino hassan) is a Jewish
Jewish
musician or precentor trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer.[2] In English, this prayer leader is often referred to as cantor, a term also used in Christianity.Contents1 The shaliaḥ tzibbur and the evolution of the hazzan 2 Qualifications 3 Professional status3.1 Training4 Female cantors in non-Orthodox Judaism 5 Golden age 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksThe shaliaḥ tzibbur and the evolution of the hazzan[edit] The person leading the congregation in public prayers is called the shaliaḥ tzibbur (Hebrew for "emissary of the congregation")
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Feature-length
In motion picture terminology, feature length is the length of a feature film. According to the rules of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, a feature-length motion picture must have a running time of more than 40 minutes to be eligible for an Academy Award.[1] Television movies and direct-to-video may also be feature length. An episode of a TV series that has been extended may also be feature length. Such feature-length episodes are usually series pilots, holiday specials, or season finales. History[edit] The earliest known feature-length narrative film in the world was the Australian production The Story of the Kelly Gang
The Story of the Kelly Gang
(1906), which was 60 minutes in length. Five-reel features became common practice in the industry in 1915. During the silent era a one-reel short ran for an average of 10 minutes, and a two-reeler (usually a comedy) for 20 minutes, thus a feature was around 50 minutes or more
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Lewis F. Muir
Lewis F. Muir, born Louis Meuer (May 30, 1883–December 3, 1915) was an American composer and ragtime pianist. Originally a millinery peddler, Muir started as a pianist in St. Louis[1] cafes and played in the St. Louis
St. Louis
World's Fair in 1904.[2] He moved to New York in 1910. His first published composition was "Play That Barber-Shop Chord" from 1910. Vaudeville
Vaudeville
entertainer Bert Williams used the song in his shows. Other compositions published by Muir in 1910–1911 include "Oh, You Bear Cat Rag", "The Matrimony Rag" and "When Ragtime
Ragtime
Rosie Ragged the Rosary".[2] Journalist L. Wolfe Gilbert
L. Wolfe Gilbert
criticized Muir's use of the Catholic rosary in the name of a ragtime piece, which he considered sacrilegious. Muir confronted Gilbert in person and, after a heated argument, challenged Gilbert to write a song with him
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Waiting For The Robert E. Lee
"Waiting for the Robert E. Lee" is an American popular song written in 1912, with music by Lewis F. Muir and lyrics by L. Wolfe Gilbert. The "Robert E. Lee" in the title refers to the steamboat of that name. It has been recorded by such artists as Al Jolson, Benny Goodman, Judy Garland, Louis Jordan, Dean Martin, Russ Conway, Chas and Dave, Neil Diamond, and Lizzie Miles. External links[edit]Sheet music for piano with lyrics, "IN Harmony: Sheet Music from Indiana University"This 1910s song article is a stub
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Paul Dresser
Paul Dresser
Paul Dresser
(born Johann Paul Dreiser, Jr.; April 22, 1857 – January 30, 1906) was an American singer, songwriter, and comedic actor of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In addition to songwriting Dresser performed in traveling minstrel and medicine-wagon shows and as a vaudeville entertainer. Dresser sold his songs through sheet music publishers, especially the firms in New York City's Tin Pan Alley, and became a partner in the music publishing business. Dresser grew up in a large family and lived in Sullivan and Terre Haute, Indiana. He had a troubled childhood and spent several weeks in jail. Dresser left home at age sixteen to join a traveling minstrel act and performed in several regional theaters before joining John Hamlin's Wizard Oil
Wizard Oil
traveling medicine-wagon show in 1878. Dresser composed his first songs while working for Hamlin
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Edgar Leslie
Edgar Leslie
Edgar Leslie
(December 31, 1885 – January 22, 1976) was an American songwriter.Contents1 Biography 2 Musical career 3 Selected works 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Edgar Leslie
Edgar Leslie
was born in Stamford, Connecticut
Stamford, Connecticut
1885. He was studied at the Cooper Union
Cooper Union
in New York. He published his first song in 1909 starting a long prolific career as a composers and lyricists. He died in 1976. Musical career[edit] Come On Papa
Come On Papa
sheet musicLeslie's first song, "Lonesome" (1909), was an immediate success, recorded by the Haydn Quartet and again by Byron G. Harlan. Other notable artists recorded his early works. Among them were Nat M. Wills, Julian Rose, Belle Baker, Lew Dockstader, James Barton and Joe Welch.[1] A founding member of the ASCAP in 1914
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Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur (/jɔːm, joʊm, jɒm ˈkɪpər, kɪˈpʊər/;[1] Hebrew: יוֹם כִּיפּוּר‬, IPA: [ˈjom kiˈpuʁ], or יום הכיפורים‬), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.[2] Its central themes are atonement and repentance
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Ghetto
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.[1] The term was originally used in Venice
Venice
to describe the part of the city to which Jews
Jews
were restricted and segregated but
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American Film Institute
The American Film Institute
American Film Institute
(AFI) is an American film
American film
organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership.Contents1 Leadership 2 History 3 List of programs in brief 4 AFI Conservatory4.1 Notable alumni5 AFI programs5.1 AFI Catalog of Feature Films 5.2 AFI Life Achievement Award 5.3 AFI Awards 5.4 AFI Maya Deren Award 5.5 AFI 100 Years... series 5.6 AFI film festivals5.6.1 AFI Fest 5.6.2 AFI Docs5.7 AFI Silver
AFI Silver
Theatre and Cultural Center 5.8 The AFI Directing Workshop for Women6 AFI Directors Series 7 In popular culture 8 2017 Sexual harassment allegations 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksLeadership[edit] The institute is composed of leaders from the film, entertainment, business and academic communities
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Jazz
Jazz
Jazz
is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States,[1] in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.[2] Jazz
Jazz
is seen by many as 'America's classical music'.[3] Since the 1920s Jazz
Jazz
Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American
African-American
and European-American
European-American
musical parentage with a performance orientation.[4] Jazz
Jazz
is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation
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Beer Garden
A beer garden (a loan translation from the German Biergarten) is an outdoor area in which beer and local food are served, typically at shared tables
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Sound-on-disc
Sound-on-disc is a class of sound film processes using a phonograph or other disc to record or play back sound in sync with a motion picture. Early sound-on-disc systems used a mechanical interlock with the movie projector, while more recent systems use timecode.Contents1 Examples of sound-on-disc processes1.1 France 1.2 USA 1.3 UK 1.4 Other2 References 3 See alsoExamples of sound-on-disc processes[edit] France[edit]The Chronophone
Chronophone
(Léon Gaumont) "Filmparlants" and phonoscènes 1902–1910 (experimental), 1910–1917 (industrial)[1]USA[edit] Vitaphone
Vitaphone
introduced by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
in 1926 Phono-Kinema, short-lived system, invented by Orlando Kellum in 1921 (used by D. W. Griffith
D. W

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James V. Monaco
James Vincent Monaco (January 13, 1885 – October 16, 1945) was an Italian-born American composer of popular music. Monaco was born in Formia, Italy; his family emigrated to Albany, New York when he was six. He worked as a ragtime player in Chicago
Chicago
before moving to New York. Monaco's first successful song "Oh, You Circus Day" was featured in the 1912 Broadway revue Hanky Panky. Further success came with "Row, Row, Row" (lyrics by William Jerome) in the Ziegfeld Follies
Ziegfeld Follies
of 1912
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Synchronization
Synchronization
Synchronization
is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. The conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or in time. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are said to be synchronous or in sync—and those that are not are asynchronous. Today, time synchronization can occur between systems around the world through satellite navigation signals.Contents1 Transport 2 Communication 3 Dynamical systems 4 Human movement 5 Uses 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTransport[edit] Time-keeping and synchronization of clocks has been a critical problem in long-distance ocean navigation. Before global positioning systems, navigators required accurate time in conjunction with astronomical observations to determine how far east or west their vessel traveled. The invention of an accurate marine chronometer revolutionized marine navigation
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L. Wolfe Gilbert
Louis Wolfe Gilbert (August 31, 1886 – July 12, 1970) was a Russian-born American songwriter of Tin Pan Alley.[1][2][3]Contents1 Biography 2 Songs 3 Lyrics for Broadway productions 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Odessa, Russian Empire, Gilbert moved to the United States
United States
as a young man.[1] Gilbert began his career touring with John L. Sullivan
John L. Sullivan
and singing in a quartet at small Coney Island
Coney Island
café called "College Inn", where he was discovered by English producer Albert Decourville. Decourville brought him to London
London
as part of The Ragtime Octet. Gilbert's first songwriting success came in 1912 when F. A. Mills Music Publishers published his song Waiting For the Robert E. Lee (melody by composer Lewis F
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