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The Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef
is the world's largest coral reef system[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi).[4][5] The reef is located in the Coral
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Continental Drift
Continental drift
Continental drift
is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.[2] The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener
Alfred Wegener
in 1912, but his theory was rejected by some for lack of a mechanism (though this was supplied later by Arthur Holmes)
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Nature (journal)
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.[1] It was ranked the world's most cited scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal
Journal
Citation Reports and is ascribed an impact factor of 40.137 , making it one of the world's top academic journals.[2][3] It is one of the few remaining academic journals that publishes original research across a wide range of scientific fields.[3][4] Research
Research
scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but summaries and accompanying articles are intended to make many of the most important papers understandable to scientists in other fields and the educated public. Towards the front of each issue are editorials, news and feature articles on issues of general interest to scientists, including current affairs, science funding, business, scientific ethics and research breakthroughs. There are also sections on books and arts
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East Australian Cordillera
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. It stretches more than 3,500 kilometres (2,175 mi) from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through New South Wales, then into Victoria and turning west, before finally fading into the central plain at the Grampians in western Victoria
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Murray Islands
Murray Islands is a group of small islands 1.2 nautical miles (2.2 km; 1.4 mi) southeast of Cape Whitson, off the south coast of Laurie Island
Laurie Island
in the South Orkney Islands. Discovered in 1823 by Matthew Brisbane, who explored the south coast of Laurie Island under the direction of James Weddell
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Torres Strait
The Torres Strait
Strait
(/ˈtɔːrɪs/) is a strait which lies between Australia
Australia
and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. It is approximately 150 km (93 mi) wide at its narrowest extent. To the south is Cape York Peninsula, the northernmost continental extremity of the Australian state of Queensland. To the north is the Western Province of Papua New Guinea. It is named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres, who passed through the Strait
Strait
in 1606.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Shipping routes 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] The strait links the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
to the east with the Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
and Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
in the west
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Bramble Cay
Bramble Cay, also called Maizab Kaur,[1] Massaramcoer or Baramaki, and located at the northeastern edge of the Torres Strait Islands of Queensland and at the northern end of the Great Barrier Reef,[3] is the northernmost point of land of Australia. It is 55 kilometres (34 mi) southeast of the mouth of the Fly River of Papua New Guinea.Contents1 Features 2 Governance 3 References 4 External linksFeatures[edit] The 3.62-hectare (8.9-acre) sand cay is predominately grassland, with 1.72 hectares (4.3 acres) covered in grasses.[4] After several shipwrecks, the first lighthouse, a 42 feet (13 m) pyramidal steel tower, was finally erected in 1924. It was demolished in 1954 and replaced by the present lighthouse, a 17 metres (56 ft) stainless steel tower, which was equipped with solar power on 6 January 1987. There are maintenance visits by vessels of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority every three to six months. Bramble Cay is a breeding place for green turtles
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Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147Independent State of Papua New GuineaIndependen Stet bilong Papua Niugini Papua Niu GiniFlagNational emblemMotto: "Unity in diversity"[1]Anthem: O Arise, All You Sons [2]Location of  Papua New Guinea  (green)Capital and largest city Port Moresby 9°30′S 147°07′E / 9.500°S 147.117°E / -9.500; 147.117Official languages[3][4]Hiri Motu Tok Pisin PNG Sign Language EnglishDemonym Papua New GuineanGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor-GeneralBob Dadae• Prime MinisterPeter O'NeillLegislature National ParliamentIndependence from Australia• Papua and
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Lady Elliot Island
Lady Elliot Island is the southernmost coral cay of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The island lies 46 nautical miles (85 km; 53 mi) north-east of Bundaberg
Bundaberg
and covers an area of approximately 45 hectares (110 acres). It is part of the Capricorn and Bunker Group of islands and is owned by the Commonwealth of Australia. The island is home to a small eco resort and an airstrip, which is serviced daily by flights from Bundaberg, Hervey Bay, Brisbane
Brisbane
and the Gold Coast. Lady Elliot Island is located within the 'Green Zone' of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which is the highest possible classification designated by the Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
Marine Park Authority
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Fraser Island
Fraser Island
Island
(K'Gari, Gari) is a heritage-listed island located along the southeastern coast of the state of Queensland, Australia.[1][2] It is approximately 250 kilometres (160 mi) north of the state capital, Brisbane.[3] Known as Fraser Island, it is a locality within the Fraser Coast local government in the Wide Bay–Burnett
Wide Bay–Burnett
region.[4] Its length is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) and its width is approximately 24 kilometres (15 mi).[5] It was inscribed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1992.[6] The island is considered to be the largest sand island in the world at 1,840 km2.[7] It is also Queensland's largest island, Australia's sixth largest island and the largest island on the East Coast of Australia
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As The Crow Flies
As the crow flies, similar to in a beeline, is an idiom for the most direct path between two points. This meaning is attested from the early 19th century,[1][2] and appeared in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist:We cut over the fields at the back with him between us – straight as the crow flies – through hedge and ditch.[1]According to BBC Focus, "'As the crow flies' is a pretty common saying but it isn't particularly accurate".[3] Crows do not swoop in the air like swallows or starlings, but they often circle above their nests.[3] Crows do conspicuously fly alone across open country, but neither crows nor bees (as in “beeline”) fly in particularly straight lines.[3]Contents1 See also 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksSee also[edit]Geodesic Great-circle distanceReferences[edit]^ a b Allen, Robert (2008). Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases. Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141917689.  ^ Knowles, Elizabeth (2006)
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Plate Tectonic
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
(from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Cainozoic
The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era ( /ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk, ˌsɛ-/)[1][2] is the current geological era, covering the period from 66 million years ago to the present day. The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
is also known as the Age of Mammals, because of the large mammals that dominate it. The continents also moved into their current positions during this era.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Divisions2.1 Paleogene Period 2.2 Neogene 2.3 Quaternary3 Animal life 4 Tectonics 5 Climate 6 Life 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksNomenclature[edit] Cenozoic, meaning "new life," is derived from Greek καινός kainós "new," and ζωή zōḗ "life."[3] The era is also known as the Cænozoic, Caenozoic, or Cainozoic
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Australian Dollar
$5, $10, $20, $50 $100Coins 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, $1, $2DemographicsOfficial user(s) Australia7 Australian territories Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory  Christmas Island  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands  Norfolk Island7 countries  Kiribati
Kiribati
(alongside Kiribati
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Tectonic Uplift
Tectonic uplift
Tectonic uplift
is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.[citation needed] While isostatic response is important, an increase in the mean elevation of a region can only occur in response to tectonic processes of crustal thickening (such as mountain building events), changes in the density distribution of the crust and underlying mantle, and flexural support due to the bending of rigid lithosphere. One should also take into consideration the effects of denudation (processes that wear away the earth's surface). Within the scope of this topic, uplift relates to denudation in that denudation brings buried rocks closer to the surface. This process can redistribute large loads from an elevated region to a topographically lower area as well – thus promoting an isostatic response in the region of denudation (which can cause local bedrock uplift)
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