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The Get Up Kids / Rocket From The Crypt
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin")[nb 1][1] is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine
Rocket engine
exhaust is formed entirely from propellant carried within the rocket before use.[2] Rocket
Rocket
engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and can therefore work in the vacuum of space. In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere. Multistage rockets are capable of attaining escape velocity from Earth and therefore can achieve unlimited maximum altitude. Compared with airbreathing engines, rockets are lightweight and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations
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Rocket (other)
A rocket is a vehicle, missile, or aircraft propelled by an engine that creates thrust from a high speed exhaust jet made exclusively from propellant. Rocket
Rocket
or Rockets may also refer to:Contents1 Projectiles 2 Arts and entertainment2.1 Film3 Military 4 Music4.1 Bands 4.2 Albums 4.3 Songs5 Sports teams 6 Transportation 7 People7.1 Fictional characters8 Plants 9 Other uses 10 See alsoProjectiles[edit]
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Hybrid Rocket
A hybrid-propellant rocket is a rocket with a rocket motor which uses rocket propellants in two different phases. - one solid and the other either gas or liquid. The hybrid rocket concept can be traced back at least 75 years.[1] Hybrid rockets avoid some of the disadvantages of solid rockets like the dangers of propellant handling, while also avoiding some disadvantages of liquid rockets like their mechanical complexity.[2] Because it is difficult for the fuel and oxidizer to be mixed intimately (being different states of matter), hybrid rockets tend to fail more benignly than liquids or solids. Like liquid rocket engines, hybrid rocket motors can be shut down easily and the thrust is throttleable. The theoretical specific impulse ( I s p displaystyle I_ sp ) performance of hybrids is generally higher than solid motors and lower than liquid engines
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Artificial Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit
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Human Spaceflight
Human spaceflight
Human spaceflight
(also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
carrying people may be operated directly, by human crew, or it may be either remotely operated from ground stations on Earth
Earth
or be autonomous, able to carry out a specific mission with no human involvement. The first human spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 12 April 1961 as a part of the Vostok program, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard. Humans have been continuously present in space for 17 years and 155 days on the International Space Station. All early human spaceflight was crewed, where at least some of the passengers acted to carry out tasks of piloting or operating the spacecraft
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Space Exploration
Space exploration
Space exploration
is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality
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Chemical Rocket
A rocket engine is a type of jet engine[1] that uses only stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet. Rocket
Rocket
engines are reaction engines, obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law. Most rocket engines are internal combustion engines, although non-combusting forms (such as cold gas thrusters) also exist. Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are commonly called rockets. Since they need no external material to form their jet, rocket engines can perform in a vacuum and thus can be used to propel spacecraft and ballistic missiles. Compared to other types of jet engines, rocket engines are by far the lightest, and have the highest thrust, but are the least propellant-efficient (they have the lowest specific impulse). The ideal exhaust is hydrogen, the lightest of all gases, but chemical rockets produce a mix of heavier species, reducing the exhaust velocity
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Combustion
Combustion
Combustion
/kəmˈbʌs.tʃən/, or burning,[1] is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion
Combustion
in a fire produces a flame, and the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining. Combustion
Combustion
is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion
Combustion
is often hot enough that light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines
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Oxidizer
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and the halogens. In one sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that undergoes a chemical reaction that removes one or more electrons from another atom. In that sense, it is one component in an oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction. In the second sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that transfers electronegative atoms, usually oxygen, to a substrate
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Liquid Fuel
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. It is the fumes of liquid fuels that are flammable instead of the fluid
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Monopropellant
Monopropellants[1] are propellants consisting of chemicals that release energy through exothermic chemical decomposition. The molecular bond energy of the monopropellant is released usually through use of a catalyst. This can be contrasted with bipropellants that release energy through the chemical reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel. While stable under defined storage conditions, monopropellants decompose very rapidly under certain other conditions to produce a large volume of energetic (hot) gases for the performance of mechanical work
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Hypergolic Propellant
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other. The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an oxidizer. Although commonly used, hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness
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Solid-fuel Rocket
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). The earliest rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used in warfare by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Persians, as early as the 13th century.[1] All rockets used some form of solid or powdered propellant up until the 20th century, when liquid-propellant rockets offered more efficient and controllable alternatives. Solid rockets are still used today in model rockets and on larger applications for their simplicity and reliability. Since solid-fuel rockets can remain in storage for long periods, and then reliably launch on short notice, they have been frequently used in military applications such as missiles. The lower performance of solid propellants (as compared to liquids) does not favor their use as primary propulsion in modern medium-to-large launch vehicles customarily used to orbit commercial satellites and launch major space probes
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History Of Rockets
The first rockets may have appeared as early as the 10th century Song dynasty China, however more solid documentary evidence does not appear until the 13th century. The technology probably spread across Eurasia in the wake of the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
of the mid-13th century. Usage of rockets as weapons prior to modern rocketry is attested in China, Korea, India, and Europe. One of the first recorded rocket launchers is the "wasp nest" fire arrow launcher produced by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in 1380. In Europe
Europe
rockets were also used in the same year at the Battle of Chioggia. The Joseon
Joseon
kingdom of Korea
Korea
made use of a type of mobile multiple rocket launcher known as the "Munjong Hwacha" by 1451
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Ejection Seat
In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency. In most designs, the seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it. The concept of an ejectable escape crew capsule has also been tried. Once clear of the aircraft, the ejection seat deploys a parachute. Ejection seats are common on certain types of military aircraft.Contents1 History 2 Pilot safety 3 Egress systems3.1 Zero-zero ejection seat4 Other aircraft 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Martin-Baker
Martin-Baker
WY6AM ejection seat. United States Air Force
United States Air Force
F-15 Eagle
F-15 Eagle
ejection seat test using a mannequin.A bungee-assisted escape from an aircraft took place in 1910
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Timeline Of Rocket And Missile Technology
This article gives a concise timeline of rocket and missile technology.Contents1 11th century 2 17th century-19th century 3 20th century 4 21st century 5 See also 6 References11th century[edit]11th century AD - The first documented record of gunpowder and the fire arrow, an early form of rocketry, appears in the Chinese text Wujing Zongyao.17th century-19th century[edit]1633 - Lagâri Hasan Çelebi
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi
launched a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (140 lbs) of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.[1] 1650 - Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima ("G
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