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The Gambia (1965–1970)
Between 1965 and 1970, The Gambia
The Gambia
was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and other states headed by Queen Elizabeth II. It was a predecessor to the modern-day republic of The Gambia. Gambia was given independence from Britain in 1965 under the Gambia Independence Act 1964, which unified the British Crown Colony and Protectorate of the Gambia into an independent sovereign state. The British monarch, Elizabeth II, remained head of state of the Gambia, which shared its Sovereign with other Commonwealth realms. The Queen's constitutional roles were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of the Gambia
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1994 Gambian Coup D'état
Coup attempt succeeds. Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
is overthrown.Belligerents Government of the Gambia Military factionCommanders and leadersDawda Jawara Yahya JammehPart of a series on theHistory of the GambiaChronologicalSenegambian stone circles Takrur Mali Empire Songhai Empire Couronian colonization Albreda Gambia Colony and Protectorate Gambia Independence Act 1964 Senegambia Confederation 1994 Gambian coup d'état 2014 Gambian coup d'état attempt Gambia portalv t eIn the 1994 Gambian coup d'état, a group
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.[1] Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the Commonwealth Realms).[2] In count
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Couronian Colonization
Couronian colonization
Couronian colonization
refers to the colonization efforts of the Duchy of Courland
Courland
and Semigallia, a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Small but wealthy, it took a modest part in the European domination and settlement of West Africa
West Africa
and the Caribbean.Contents1 History 2 Former colonies 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Like Brandenburg, that had far larger German colonizing power before the formation of the German Empire, the Polish-Lithuanian fief of Courland
Courland
had a European crusading, hence expansionist, past. The colonies were established under Jakob, Duke of Courland
Courland
and Semigallia, and were indirect colonies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. During his reign, the duchy established trading relations with all of the major European powers
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Albreda
Albreda
Albreda
is a historic settlement in the Gambia on the north bank of the Gambia River, variously described as a 'trading post' or a 'slave fort'. It is located near Jufureh
Jufureh
in the North Bank Division
North Bank Division
and an arch stands on the beach connecting the two places. As of 2008, it has an estimated population of 1,776.[1]Contents1 History 2 Roots 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Albreda
Albreda
todayAccording to Wolof oral tradition, Musa Gaye, a Wolof marabout founded it sometime between 1520 and 1681. Wolof traders called the island Draga, while the Mandinkas called it Albadar.[2] In 1681, a local ruler, Niumi Mansa (the Niumi District takes its name from this man), gave the land to the French because his people depended on trade with Europeans
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Gambia Independence Act 1964
The Gambia
The Gambia
Independence Act 1964 (1964 c. 93) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
that gave independence to the Gambia with effect from 18 February 1965. The Act also provided for the continued right of appeal from the Gambian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which was abolished in 1998 when Yahya Jammeh decided to reorganise the Gambian judiciary under the 1997 Constitution of the Gambia, which replaced the 1970 Constitution of The Gambia
The Gambia
that had been suspended after the 1994
1994
Gambian coup d'etat on 22 July 1994. References[edit]Text of the Gambia Independence Act 1964
Gambia Independence Act 1964
as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk Whitaker's Almanack: for the year 1966, complete edition, p. 321. J
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Coat Of Arms Of Gambia
The coat of arms of The Gambia has been in use since 18 November 1964. It depicts two lions holding an axe and hoe, supporting a shield that depicts another pair of hoe and axe, crossed. Atop the shield is set the heraldic helmet and an oil palm as a crest. At the bottom is the national motto: Progress – Peace – Prosperity.Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] The two lions represent the colonial history of The Gambia as part of the British Empire. The crossed axe and hoe represent the importance of agriculture to The Gambia. They are also considered to represent the two major ethnic groups of The Gambia: the Mandinka and the Fulani. The crest, a palm tree, is also a vital national tree.[1] The design was created by Nicholas Potin, a government employee with the Department of Surveys, who won a national competition to design it.[2] See also[edit]Flag of The GambiaReferences[edit]^ Whitney Smith (1975)
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2014 Gambian Coup D'état Attempt
Gambian GovernmentMilitary of the GambiaFaction of the Presidential Guard[1][2]Commanders and leadersPresident Yahya Jammeh Lt. Col
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Sovereign State
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area
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States Headed By Queen Elizabeth II
The number of states headed by Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
has varied during her 66 years on the throne, altogether seeing her as sovereign of a total of 32 independent countries during this period. In her capacity as Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(including the British overseas territories), she is also monarch of three Crown dependencies—Guernsey, Jersey, and Man—and, in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand, she is monarch of two associated states—the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue—since they acquired this status in 1965 and 1974, respectively. Two situation in two countries differs from the others. The government of the unrecognised state of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
proclaimed its allegiance to Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as queen of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
from 1965 to 1970
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Head Of Government
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", (e.g
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Dominion
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.[1][2] They included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka)
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List Of Governors-General Of The Gambia
This is a list of the heads of state of the Gambia, from the independence of the Gambia in 1965 to the present day. From 1965 to 1970 the head of state under the Gambia Independence Act 1964 was the Queen of the Gambia, Elizabeth II, who was also the Monarch of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen was represented in the Gambia by a Governor-General
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Republics In The Commonwealth Of Nations
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
with a republican form of government. As of May 2017, 31 out of the 52 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the monarch in the Commonwealth realms, is still the titular Head of the Commonwealth
Head of the Commonwealth
in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead, it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members.[1] Except for the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique
Mozambique
and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda, they are all former British (or partly British) colonies or self-governing colonies that have evolved into republics
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Gambian Republic Referendum, 1965
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in the Gambia on 24 November 1965.[1] If the referendum had passed, the post of president would have replaced Elizabeth II as head of state, and thus eliminated the post of Governor-General. There were 154,626 registered voters for the referendum, with 93,484 valid votes cast. 65.85% of voters voted for the proposal, but failed to reach the two-thirds support required for the proposal to be accepted. A second referendum was held in 1970, which resulted in a successful "yes" vote
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Gambian Republic Referendum, 1970
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in the Gambia in April 1970. The changes resulted in the creation of the post of President to replace Elizabeth II as head of state, thus eliminating the post of Governor-General. It was the second referendum on the issue: the first in 1965 failed because the two-thirds majority required was not reached. This time the referendum produced a "yes" result
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