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The Crowned Prudencia, Riding A Wagon And Speaking To Women Wellcome L0029370
Speech
Speech
is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if they are the same word, e.g., "role" or "hotel"), and using those words in their semantic character as words in the lexicon of a language according to the syntactic constraints that govern lexical words' function in a sentence. In speaking, speakers perform many different intentional speech acts, e.g., informing, declaring, asking, persuading, directing, and can use enunciation, intonation, degrees of loudness, tempo, and other non-representational or paralinguistic aspects of vocalization to convey meaning
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Public Speaking
Public speaking
Public speaking
(also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. This type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain. Public speaking
Public speaking
is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners.[1] Public speaking
Public speaking
can be governed by different rules and structures. For example, speeches about concepts do not necessarily have to be structured in any special way. However, there is a method behind giving it effectively. For this type of speech it would be good to describe that concept with examples that can relate to the audiences life
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Linguistic Anthropology
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life
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Model-theoretic Grammars
Model-theoretic grammars, also known as constraint-based grammars, contrast with generative grammars in the way they define sets of sentences: they state constraints on syntactic structure rather than providing operations for generating syntactic objects.[1] A generative grammar provides a set of operations such as rewriting, insertion, deletion, movement, or combination, and is interpreted as a definition of the set of all and only the objects that these operations are capable of producing through iterative application. A model-theoretic grammar simply states a set of conditions that an object must meet, and can be regarded as defining the set of all and only the structures of a certain sort that satisfy all of the constraints
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Dependency Grammar
Dependency grammar
Dependency grammar
(DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière. Dependency is the notion that linguistic units, e.g. words, are connected to each other by directed links. The (finite) verb is taken to be the structural center of clause structure. All other syntactic units (words) are either directly or indirectly connected to the verb in terms of the directed links, which are called dependencies. DGs are distinct from phrase structure grammars (constituency grammars), since DGs lack phrasal nodes, although they acknowledge phrases. Structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head) and its dependents
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Functional Theories Of Grammar
Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see functionality of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures. Functional theories of language propose that since language is fundamentally a tool, it is reasonable to assume that its structures are best analyzed and understood with reference to the functions they carry out. Functional theories of grammar differ from structural linguistics or formalist language theories, in that the latter approaches seek to define the different elements of language and describe the way they relate to each other only as systems of formal rules or operations, whereas the former additionally takes into account the context where linguistic elements are used and studies the way they are instrumentally useful or functional in the given environment
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Generative Grammar
Generative grammar
Generative grammar
is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language. Noam Chomsky first used the term in relation to the theoretical linguistics of grammar that he developed in the late 1950s.[1] Linguists who follow the generative approach have been called generativists
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Stochastic Grammar
A stochastic grammar (statistical grammar) is a grammar framework with a probabilistic notion of grammaticality: Stochastic context-free grammar Statistical
Statistical
parsing Data-oriented parsing Hidden Markov model Estimation theory Statistical
Statistical
natural language processing uses stochastic, probabilistic and statistical methods, especially to resolve difficulties that arise because longer sentences are highly ambiguous when processed with realistic grammars, yielding thousands or millions of possible analyses. Methods for disambiguation often involve the use of corpora and Markov models
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Linguistic Conservatism
Linguistic conservatism is the idea in linguistics that a form, variety, or modality has changed relatively little over its history, or is relatively resistant to change. A conservative form or variety is the opposite of innovative or advanced forms or varieties, which have undergone relatively larger or more recent changes. A conservative linguistic form, such as a word, is one that remains closer to an older form from which it evolved, relative to cognate forms from the same source. For example, the Spanish word caro and the French word cher both evolved from the Latin
Latin
word cārum. The Spanish word, which is more similar to the common ancestor, is more conservative than its French cognate.[1] A language or language variety is said to be conservative if it has fewer innovations (in other words, more conservative forms) than related varieties do
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Linguistic Description
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community. All academic research in linguistics is descriptive; like all other sciences, its aim is to describe the linguistic world as it is, without the bias of preconceived ideas about how it ought to be.[1] Modern descriptive linguistics is based on a structural approach to language, as exemplified in the work of Leonard Bloomfield and others.[not verified in body] Linguistic description is often contrasted with linguistic prescription, which is found especially in education and in publishing
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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Internet Linguistics
Internet
Internet
linguistics is a domain of linguistics advocated by the English linguist David Crystal. It studies new language styles and forms that have arisen under the influence of the Internet
Internet
and other new media, such as Short Message Service
Short Message Service
(SMS) text messaging.[1][2] Since the beginning of human-computer interaction (HCI) leading to computer-mediated communication (CMC) and Internet-mediated communication (IMC), experts have acknowledged that linguistics has a contributing role in it, in terms of web interface and usability. Studying the emerging language on the Internet
Internet
can help improve conceptual organization, translation and web usability
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LGBT Linguistics
LGBT
LGBT
linguistics refers to language and sub-fields within linguistics revolving around people identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)
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Linguistic Philosophy
Linguistic philosophy is the view that philosophical problems are problems which may be solved (or dissolved) either by reforming language, or by understanding more about the language we presently use.[1] The former position is that of ideal language philosophy, the latter the position of ordinary language philosophy.[2]Contents1 See also 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksSee also[edit]Analytic philosophy § Ideal language analysis Linguistic turnNotes[edit]^ Rorty 1967, page 3. ^ Rorty 1967.References[edit]Richard Rorty, 1967. Introduction: Metaphilosophical difficulties of linguistic philosophy. In Richard Rorty
Richard Rorty
(ed.). The Linguistic Turn: Recent Essays in Philosophical Method. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1967.External links[edit]Entry on analytic philosophy in the Internet Encyclopedia of PhilosophyThis philosophy of language-related article is a stub
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Grammar
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules[1] for using that language and these rules constitute that language's grammar. The vast majority of the information in the grammar is — at least in the case of one's native language—acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers
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Origin Of Language
The first language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. There is no consensus on the origin or age of human language. The topic is difficult to study because of the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition, and comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among animals (particularly other primates). Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection. This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study
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