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Thales
Thales
Thales
of Miletus
Miletus
(/ˈθeɪliːz/; Greek: Θαλῆς (ὁ Μῑλήσιος), Thalēs; c. 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus
Miletus
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(present-day Milet
Milet
in Turkey). He was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regarded him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition,[1][2] and he is otherwise historically recognized as the first individual in Western civilization known to have entertained and engaged in scientific philosophy.[3][4] Thales
Thales
is recognized for breaking from the use of mythology to explain the world and the universe, and instead explaining natural objects and phenomena by theories and hypotheses, i.e. science
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Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
(/daɪˈɒdʒɪniːz leɪˈɜːrʃiəs/;[1] Greek: Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios; fl. 3rd century AD) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a principal source for the history of Greek philosophy. "Diogenes has acquired an importance out of all proportion to his merits because the loss of many primary sources and of the earlier secondary compilations has accidentally left him the chief continuous source for the history of Greek philosophy."[2]Contents1 Life 2 Writings 3 Editions and translations 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Although not definitive, Laërtius must have lived after Sextus Empiricus (c. 200), whom he mentions, and before Stephanus of Byzantium and Sopater of Apamea (c. 500), who quote him
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Duris Of Samos
Duris of Samos (Greek: Δοῦρις ὁ Σάμιος; c. 350 BC – after 281 BC) was a Greek historian and was at some period tyrant of Samos.Contents1 Personal and political life 2 Writings2.1 List of works 2.2 Later opinions3 References 4 Bibliography4.1 Editions of the fragments 4.2 Modern scholarship 4.3 Other encyclopediasPersonal and political life[edit] Duris claimed to be a descendant of Alcibiades,[1] and was the brother of Lynceus of Samos
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Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
(/daɪˈɒdʒɪniːz leɪˈɜːrʃiəs/;[1] Greek: Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios; fl. 3rd century AD) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a principal source for the history of Greek philosophy. "Diogenes has acquired an importance out of all proportion to his merits because the loss of many primary sources and of the earlier secondary compilations has accidentally left him the chief continuous source for the history of Greek philosophy."[2]Contents1 Life 2 Writings 3 Editions and translations 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Although not definitive, Laërtius must have lived after Sextus Empiricus (c. 200), whom he mentions, and before Stephanus of Byzantium and Sopater of Apamea (c. 500), who quote him
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Phoenicia
Coordinates: 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111Phoeniciaknʿn / kanaʿan  (Phoenician) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē  (Greek)1500 BC[1]–539 BCMap of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routesCapital Not specifiedLanguages Phoenician, PunicReligion Canaanite religionGovernment City-states ruled by kingsWell-known kings of Phoenician cities •  c. 1000 BC Ahiram •  969 – 936 BC Hiram I •  820 – 774 BC
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Apollodorus Of Athens
Apollodorus of Athens
Athens
(Greek: Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon, Panaetius
Panaetius
the Stoic, and the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace. He left (perhaps fled) Alexandria
Alexandria
around 146 BC, most likely for Pergamon, and eventually settled in Athens. Literary works[edit]Chronicle (Χρονικά), a Greek history in verse from the fall of Troy
Troy
in the 12th century BC to roughly 143 BC (although later it was extended as far as 109 BC), and based on previous works by Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
of Cyrene. Its dates are reckoned by its references to the archons of Athens
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Deductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.[1] Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
("top-down logic") contrasts with inductive reasoning ("bottom-up logic") in the following way; in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion(s) is left
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Water (classical Element)
Water
Water
is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing. In contemporary esoteric traditions, it is commonly associated with the qualities of emotion and intuition.Contents1 Greek and Roman tradition 2 Indian tradition 3 Ceremonial magic 4 Modern witchcraft 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksGreek and Roman tradition[edit] Water
Water
was one of many archai proposed by the Pre-socratics, most of whom tried to reduce all things to a single substance. However, Empedocles
Empedocles
of Acragas (c. 495 – c. 435 BC) selected four archai for his four roots: air, fire, water and earth. Empedocles
Empedocles
roots became the four classical elements of Greek philosophy. Plato
Plato
(427–347 BC) took over the four elements of Empedocles
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Substance Theory
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. A thing-in-itself is a property-bearer that must be distinguished from the properties it bears.[1] Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world. According to monistic views, there is only one substance. Stoicism
Stoicism
and Spinoza, for example, hold monistic views, that pneuma or God, respectively, is the one substance in the world. These modes of thinking are sometimes associated with the idea of immanence. Dualism sees the world as being composed of two fundamental substances, for example, the Cartesian substance dualism of mind and matter
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Nature
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science
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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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Theory
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.[citation needed] Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values.[1]:131 A theory can be a body of knowledge, which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge.[2]:46 As already in Aristotle's definitions, theory is very often contrasted to "practice" (from Greek praxis, πρᾶξις) a Greek term for doing, which is opposed to theory because pure theory involves no doing apart from itself
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Mythology
Mythology
Mythology
refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people[1] or to the study of such myths.[2] A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato
Plato
and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists
Neoplatonists
and later revived by Renaissance
Renaissance
mythographers
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Western Civilization
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization, or Christian
Christian
civilization,[2] is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term also applies beyond Europe
Europe
to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe
Europe
by immigration, colonization, or influence
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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