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Thalamus
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber")[1] is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex,[2][3][page needed] and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.[4] It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon, as first assigned by Wilhelm His, Sr.
Wilhelm His, Sr.
in 1893.[5]Contents1 Anatomy1.1 Blood suppl
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MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays and the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT or CAT scans. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications such as NMR spectroscopy. While the hazards of X-rays
X-rays
are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI may still be seen as a better choice than CT. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and follow-up without exposing the body to radiation
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Sensory Neuron
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.[citation needed] This process is called sensory transduction. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord.[1] This sensory information travels along afferent nerve fibers in an afferent or sensory nerve, to the brain via the spinal cord
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Periventricular Nucleus
The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure of the hypothalamus. It functions in analgesia. It is located in the rostral, intermediate, and caudal regions of the hypothalamus. The rostral region aids in the production of both somatostatin and thyroid releasing hormone. The intermediate portion aids in production of thyroid releasing hormone, somatostatin, leptin, gastrin, and neuropeptide y. In humans and primates it also produces GnRH. Lastly the caudal region aids in sympathetic nervous system regulation, and is regarded as the rage center
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Neuron
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell (biology)cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via specialized connections called synapses. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are many types of specialized neurons. Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons
respond to one particular type of stimulus such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain
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Axon
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles, and glands. In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve fibers and the electrical impulse travels along these from the periphery to the cell body, and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon. Axon
Axon
dysfunction has caused many inherited and acquired neurological disorders which can affect both the peripheral and central neurons. Nerve
Nerve
fibers are classed into three types – group A nerve fibers, group B nerve fibers, and group C nerve fibers. Groups A and B are myelinated, and group C are unmyelinated
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Myelin
Myelin
Myelin
is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination or myelinogenesis. In humans, myelination begins early in the 3rd trimester,[1] although little myelin exists in the brain at the time of birth. During infancy, myelination occurs quickly, leading to a child's fast development, including crawling and walking in the first year. Myelination continues through the adolescent stage of life. Schwann cells supply the myelin for the peripheral nervous system, whereas oligodendrocytes, specifically of the interfascicular type, myelinate the axons of the central nervous system
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Lamella (anatomy)
In surface anatomy, a lamella is a thin plate-like structure, often one amongst many lamellae very close to one another, with open space between. Aside from respiratory organs, they appear in other biological roles including filter feeding and the traction surfaces of geckos.[1] In fish gills there are two types of lamellae, primary and secondary. The primary gill lamellae come out of the interbranchial septum at the fish gill filament to increase the contact area between the water and the blood capillaries that lie in the fish gill filaments. The secondary gill lamellae are small lamellae that come out of the primary ones and are used to further increase the contact area. Both types of lamellae are used to increase the amount of oxygen intake of the blood
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Ontogenetic
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan. Ontogeny is the developmental history of an organism within its own lifetime, as distinct from phylogeny, which refers to the evolutionary history of a species. In practice, writers on evolution often speak of species as "developing" traits or characteristics. This can be misleading. While developmental (i.e., ontogenetic) processes can influence subsequent evolutionary (e.g., phylogenetic) processes[1] (see evolutionary developmental biology), individual organisms develop (ontogeny), while species evolve (phylogeny). Ontogeny, embryology and developmental biology are closely related studies and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably
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Posterior Communicating Artery
In human anatomy, the left and right posterior communicating arteries are arteries at the base of the brain that form part of the circle of Willis. Each posterior communicating artery connects the three cerebral arteries of the same side. Anteriorly, it connects to the internal carotid artery (ICA) prior to the terminal bifurcation of the ICA into the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. Posteriorly, it communicates with the posterior cerebral artery. The brain is supplied with blood by the internal carotid arteries and also by the posterior cerebral arteries; the posterior communicating arteries connects the two systems
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Embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the DNA
DNA
of each of its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism
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Vertebrate
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Alertness
Alertness
Alertness
is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act. It is related to psychology as well as to physiology. A lack of alertness is a symptom of a number of conditions, including narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, Addison's disease, or sleep deprivation. Pronounced lack of alertness can be graded as an altered level of consciousness. The word is formed from "alert", which comes from the Italian "all'erta" (on the watch, literally, on the height; 1618)Contents1 Physiological aspects 2 Drugs used to increase alertness 3 Behavioral ecology 4 ReferencesPhysiological aspects[edit]Domenico Tintoretto, Allegory of VigilancePeople who have to be alert during their jobs, such as air traffic controllers or pilots, often face challenges maintaining their alertness
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Sleep
Sleep
Sleep
is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.[1] It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but is more easily reversed than the state of being comatose. Sleep
Sleep
occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes: REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Although REM stands for "rapid eye movement", this mode of sleep has many other aspects, including virtual paralysis of the body
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Motor Neuron
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.[1] There are two types of motor neuron – upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons
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Wilhelm His, Sr.
Wilhelm His Sr. (9 July 1831 – 1 May 1904) was a Swiss anatomist and professor who invented the microtome. By treating animal flesh with acids and salts to harden it and then slicing it very thinly with the microtome, scientists were able to further research the organization and function of tissues and cells in a microscope. His came from a patrician family and studied medicine in Basel, Berlin (under Johannes Peter Müller and Robert Remak), Würzburg (under Rudolf Virchow and Albert von Kölliker), Bern, Vienna and Paris. He received a doctorate in 1854, and in 1856 received the habilitation (higher doctorate) in Basel. 1857, at the age of 26, he became professor of anatomy and physiology at the University of Basel
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