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Tetrapturus Angustirostris
The shortbill spearfish ( Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
angustirostris) is a species of marlin native to the Indian and Pacific
Pacific
Oceans, with occasional records from the Atlantic Ocean. This species occurs in open waters not far from the surface. This species can reach a length of 230 cm (91 in), though most do not exceed 190 cm (75 in). The maximum recorded weight for this species is 52 kg (115 lb). It is of minor importance to commercial fisheries and is also a game fish.[2] References[edit]Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, (William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1982) ISBN 0-00-216987-8^ Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Carpenter, K.E., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
angustirostris
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Conservation Status
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future
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Apex Predators
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, upon which no other animals prey.[a][4][5] Apex predators are usually defined in terms of trophic dynamics, meaning that they occupy the highest trophic levels and serve as keystone species, vital to their ecosystems. One study of marine food webs defined apex predators as those feeding at trophic levels above four.[6] Food chains are often far shorter on land, usually limited to the third trophic level – for example, wolves prey mostly upon large herbivores
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Black Marlin
The black marlin ( Istiompax
Istiompax
indica) is a species of marlin found in tropical and subtropical areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[2] With a maximum published length of 4.65 m (15.3 ft) and weight of 750 kg (1,650 lb),[2] it is one of the largest marlins and also one of the largest bony fish. It is one of the fastest fish species as well, having been recorded unwinding fishing line at 129 km/h (80 mph).[3] Black marlin
Black marlin
are fished commercially and are also a highly prized game fish.Contents1 Description 2 Diet 3 Recreational fishing 4 Distribution 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] Compared to striped or white marlins and sailfish, black marlins are more solid than their blue counterparts. They have a shorter bill and a rounder and lower dorsal fin
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Makaira
Makaira
Makaira
mazara Makaira
Makaira
nigricansSynonymsEumakaira Hirasaka & H. Nakamura, 1947 Marlina Hirasaka & H. Nakamura, 1947 Orthocraeros J. L. B. Smith, 1956 Makaira
Makaira
( Latin
Latin
via Greek: μαχαίρα "sword") is a genus of marlin in the Istiophoridae
Istiophoridae
family. It includes the Atlantic blue, and Indo-Pacific blue marlins
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Atlantic Blue Marlin
See belowThe Atlantic blue marlin
Atlantic blue marlin
( Makaira
Makaira
nigricans) is a species of marlin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. It is closely related to, and usually considered conspecific with, the Indo-Pacific blue marlin, then simply called blue marlin. Some authorities still consider both species distinct. The Atlantic blue marlin
Atlantic blue marlin
(hereafter, blue marlin) feeds on a wide variety of organisms near the surface. It uses its bill to stun, injure, or kill while knifing through a school of fish or other prey, then returns to eat the injured or stunned fish. Marlin
Marlin
is a popular game fish. The relatively high fat content of its meat makes it commercially valuable in certain markets
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Indo-Pacific Blue Marlin
The Indo- Pacific
Pacific
blue marlin ( Makaira
Makaira
mazara) is a species of marlin belonging to the family Istiophoridae. In Hawaii, the fish is known as a'u.[2] In the Pacific, blue marlin (then known as silver marlin or often misidentified as the related black marlin) were caught by author/angler Zane Grey
Zane Grey
in Tahiti in the 1930s.Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Description 4 Biology 5 ReferencesTaxonomy[edit] Makaira
Makaira
mazara is closely related to, and usually considered conspecific with, the Atlantic blue marlin, then simply called blue marlin. The classification of the Indo- Pacific
Pacific
blue marlin (M. mazara) and the Atlantic blue marlin
Atlantic blue marlin
(M
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Kajikia
Kajikia
Kajikia
is a genus of billfishes found in all subtropical oceans.[1] Species[edit] The recognized species in this genus are:[1] Kajikia albida
Kajikia albida
(Poey, 1860) (white marlin) Kajikia audax
Kajikia audax
(Philippi Krumweide , 1887) (striped marlin)References[edit]^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Kajikia
Kajikia
in FishBase
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White Marlin
White marlin
White marlin
( Kajikia
Kajikia
albida), also known as Atlantic white marlin, marlin, skilligalee,[2] is a species of billfish that lives in the epipelagic zone of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. They are found between the latitudes of 45° N and 45° S in waters deeper than 100 m. Even though white marlin are found in bodies of water that are deeper than 100 m they tend to stay near the surface
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Striped Marlin
The striped marlin ( Kajikia
Kajikia
audax) is a species of marlin found in tropical to temperate Indo-Pacific
Indo-Pacific
oceans not far from the surface. It is a desirable commercial and game fish with a record weight (in 1982) of 190 kg (420 lb) and a maximum length of 4.2 m (13.8 ft). The striped marlin' is a predator that hunts during the day in the top 100 m or so of the water column, often near the surface. One of their chief prey is sardines.Contents1 Sustainable consumption 2 Fisheries 3 References 4 Further readingSustainable consumption[edit] In 2010, Greenpeace International has added the striped marlin to its seafood red list
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Roundscale Spearfish
The roundscale spearfish ( Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
georgii) is a species of marlin native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
from Portugal
Portugal
to Madeira, the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
to northern Africa
Africa
and the western Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to Sicily. It is suspected that it may be more widespread. It is believed to inhabit open waters. This species can reach a length of 184 centimetres (72 in) FL and the heaviest recorded fish weighed in at 21.5 kilograms (47 lb).[2] References[edit]^ Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E. 2011
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Mediterranean Spearfish
The Mediterranean spearfish
Mediterranean spearfish
( Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
belone) is a species of marlin native to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
where it is particularly common around Italy. It is an open-water fish, being found within 200 metres (660 ft) of the surface. This species can reach a length of 240 centimetres (94 in) TL. The heaviest recorded specimen weighed in at 70 kilograms (150 lb) This species is of minor importance to commercial fisheries.[2] References[edit]^ Collette, B., Bizsel, K., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Graves, J., Juan Jorda, M., Masuti, E., Nelson, R. & Oxenford, H. 2011. Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
belone. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.>
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Longbill Spearfish
The longbill spearfish ( Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
pfluegeri) is a species of marlin native to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
where it is found above the thermocline in open waters. This species can reach a length of 254 centimetres (100 in) FL and the maximum weight recorded is 58 kilograms (128 lb).[2] It feeds on pelagic fishes such as needlefish, tuna, and jack, as well as squids. They spawn once a year. Description[edit] The longbill spearfish is a blueish black color from above, and silvery-white and brown on the sides. The pectorals are blackish-brown and the dorsal fins are dark blue. References[edit]Robins, Richard P.; Donald P. de Sylva (1963). "A New Western Atlantic Spearfish, Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
Pfluegeri, with a Redescription of the Mediterranean Spearfish Tetrapturus
Tetrapturus
Belone". Bulletin of Marine Science
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Predatory Fish
Predatory fish
Predatory fish
are fish that prey upon other fish or animals. Some predatory fish include perch, muskie, pike, walleye and salmon. Levels of large predatory fish in the global oceans were estimated to be about 10% of their pre-industrial levels by 2003.[1] Large predatory fish are most at risk of extinction; there was a disproportionate level of large predatory fish extinctions during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
66 million years ago.[2] Creation of marine reserves has been found to restore populations of large predatory fish such as the Serranidae
Serranidae
— groupers and sea bass.[3] Predatory fish
Predatory fish
switch between types of prey in response to variations in their abundance
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Indo-Pacific Sailfish
The Indo-Pacific sailfish
Indo-Pacific sailfish
(Istiophorus platypterus) is a sailfish native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is dark blue on top, brown-blue laterally, silvery white underbelly; upper jaw elongated in the form of a spear; first dorsal fin greatly enlarged in the form of a sail, with many black cones, its front squared off, highest at its midpoint; pelvic fins very narrow, reaching almost to the anus; body covered with embedded scales, blunt at end; lateral line curved above pectoral fin, then straight to base of tail. They have a large and sharp bill, which they use for hunting. They feed on tuna and mackerel, some of the fastest fish in the Ocean
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Oceanic Fish
Pelagic
Pelagic
fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish, which do live on or near the bottom, and reef fish, which are associated with coral reefs.[1] The marine pelagic environment is the largest aquatic habitat on Earth, occupying 1,370 million cubic kilometres (330 million cubic miles), and is the habitat for 11% of known fish species. The oceans have a mean depth of 4000 metres
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