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Teresa Of The Two Sicilies
Dona Teresa Cristina (14 March 1822 – 28 December 1889), nicknamed "the Mother of the Brazilians",[2] was the Empress consort of Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, who reigned from 1831 to 1889. Born a Princess of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
in present-day southern Italy, she was the daughter of King Don Francesco I (Francis I) of the Italian branch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
and his wife Maria Isabel (Maria Isabella). It was long believed by historians that the Princess was raised in an ultra-conservative, intolerant atmosphere which resulted in a timid and unassertive character in public and an ability to be contented with very little materially or emotionally
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List Of Brazilian Consorts
The consorts of Brazil were the spouses of the reigning monarchs, using the titles of Queen of Brazil or Empress of Brazil from the establishment of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1815 to the abolition of the Empire of Brazil in 1889. Brazil had a reigning Queen, but was already widowed at the time of her reign and therefore there was never officially a male consort.Contents1 Queen consort of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves1.1 House of Braganza, 1815–18222 Empress consort of Brazil2.1 House of Braganza, 1822–18893 Titular Imperial consort of Brazil3.1 House of Braganza, 1822–1889 3.2 House of Orléans-Braganza, since 19213.2.1 Vassouras branch, since 1921 3.2.2 Petrópolis branch, since 19404 See alsoQueen consort of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves[edit] House of Braganza, 1815–1822[edit]Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Becam
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Expedition Of The Thousand
Unification victory; Collapse of the Two Sicilies; Papal States
Papal States
reduced to Latium;Kingdom of Italy
Italy
created; (est. 17 March 1861)Territorial changes Sicily, Southern Italy, Marche and Umbria ceded to the Kingdom of SardiniaBelligerents Giuseppe Garibaldi Red Shirts Southern Army Sardinia  Two Sicilies  Papal StatesCommanders and leadersVictor Emmanuel II Giuseppe Garibaldi Enrico CialdiniFrancis II Giosuè Ritucci Lukas von MechelPius IX Juchault de Lamoricièrev t eExpedition of the ThousandCalatafimi Palermo Milazzo Reggio Castelfidardo Volturno GaetaThe Expedition of the Thousand
Expedition of the Thousand
(Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento
Risorgimento
that took place in 1860
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Italian Unification
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t e Italian unification
Italian unification
(Italian: Unità d'Italia [uniˈta ddiˈtaːlja]), or the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
([risordʒiˈmento], meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in the 19th century
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Kingdom Of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia[nb 1] was a state in Southern Europe
Southern Europe
which existed from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. It was the predecessor state of the Kingdom of Italy.[7] Before it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
in 1720, it was a small Iberian state with weak institutions. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War
Crimean War
in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power
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Dom (title)
Dom is an honorific prefixed to the given name. It derives from the Latin Dominus. It is used in English for certain Benedictine
Benedictine
(including some communities which follow the Rule of St. Benedict) and Carthusian monks, and for members of certain communities of Canons Regular. Examples include Benedictine
Benedictine
monks of the English Benedictine Congregation (e.g. Dom John Chapman, late Abbot of Downside). Since the Second Vatican Council, the title can be given to any monk (lay or ordained) who has made a solemn profession. The equivalent title for a nun is "Dame" (e.g
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Proxy Marriage
A proxy wedding or (proxy marriage) is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons. If both partners are absent a double proxy wedding occurs. Marriage by proxy is usually resorted to either when a couple wish to marry but one or both partners cannot attend for reasons such as military service, imprisonment, or travel restrictions; or when a couple lives in a jurisdiction in which they cannot legally marry. Proxy weddings are not recognized as legally binding in most jurisdictions: both parties must be present
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Prince Leopold, Count Of Syracuse
Prince Leopold of the Two Sicilies[1] (22 May 1813, Palermo[1] – 4 December 1860, Pisa[1]) was a prince of the Two Sicilies and was known as the Count of Syracuse.Contents1 Life 2 Titles, styles, honours and arms2.1 Titles and styles 2.2 Honours3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit]Portrait c.1825Leopold was the fifth son of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his second wife, Maria Isabella of Spain.[1] In 1816, at the creation of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, when he was three years old, he was given the title of Count of Syracuse. At his father's death in November 1830, Leopold's elder brother, Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, named him Lieutenant general in Sicily.[2] As governor in Palermo, he introduced important reforms.[3] Fearing his popularity and the desire of Sicily for independence, he was recalled from his position in early 1835.[4] In April of the same year, he was sent to travel abroad.[4] Ferdinan
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Ferdinand II Of The Two Sicilies
Ferdinand II (Italian: Ferdinando Carlo; Sicilian: Ferdinannu Carlu; 12 January 1810 – 22 May 1859) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859.Contents1 Family 2 Early reign 3 Revolutions of 1848 4 Later reign 5 Marriage and issue 6 Ancestors 7 Titles and styles 8 Honours 9 Notes 10 References 11 See also 12 External linksFamily[edit] Ferdinand was born in Palermo, to King Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his wife (and first cousin) Maria Isabella of Spain. His paternal grandparents were King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Queen Maria Carolina of Austria. His maternal grandparents were Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV of Spain
and Maria Luisa of Parma. Ferdinand I and Charles IV were brothers, both sons of Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain
and Maria Amalia of Saxony. Early reign[edit] In his early years he was fairly popular
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Etruscan Civilization
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t eThe Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
(/ɪˈtrʌskən/) is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy
Italy
in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria
Umbria
and northern Lazio.[2] As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC)[3] until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century BC with the Roman–Etruscan Wars.[3] Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy
Italy
after about 800 BC, approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan
Villanovan
culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century BC to a culture that was influenced by Ancient
Ancient
Greek culture
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Luísa De Barros, Countess Of Barral
Luísa Margarida de Barros Portugal (13 April 1816 – January 1891), later Countess of Barral, was a Brazilian noble, preceptor of Brazilian princesses Isabel and Leopoldina, rumored to be the major love interest of Pedro II of Brazil and later part of Louis Philippe I of France's court.Contents1 Gallery 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksGallery[edit]Bibliography[edit]Wanderley Pinho, 1970, Salões e Damas do Segundo Reinado, São Paulo: Martins, cap. XI, "A Condessa de Barral", p. 195-228. Mary Del Priore, 2008, Condessa de Barral, a paixão do imperador, Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva.References[edit]This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)External links[edit][[1]] (pt) [[2]] (pt)This biography of a French peer or noble is a stub
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Coburg
Coburg
Coburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈkoːbʊɐ̯k]) is a town located on the Itz river in the Upper Franconia
Upper Franconia
region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states
Thuringian states
of the Wettin line, it joined Bavaria
Bavaria
by popular vote only in 1920. Until the revolution of 1918, it was one of the capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
and the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Through successful dynastic policies, the ruling princely family married into several of the royal families of Europe, most notably in the person of Prince Albert, who married Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1840
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Kingdom Of Italy (1861–1946)
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Carlota Of Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Prince Gaston, Count Of Eu
Gaston of Orléans (28 April 1842 – 28 August 1922), the first son of Louis, Duke of Nemours, and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was a French prince and military commander who fought in the Spanish-Moroccan War and the Paraguayan War. Gaston was married to Princess Isabel, heiress to the Brazilian throne.Contents1 Early years 2 Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil 3 Paraguayan War3.1 Modern critics to Gaston d'Orléans in the war4 Family life 5 Life as Prince-Consort 6 Later years6.1 End of the Brazilian monarchy 6.2 Exile 6.3 Return to Brazil
Brazil
and death7 Titles and honors7.1 Titles and styles 7.2 Nobility 7.3 Honors8 Ancestry 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksEarly years[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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