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Temple Mount
The TEMPLE MOUNT ( Hebrew : הַר הַבַּיִת‎‎, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the HARAM ESH-SHARIF (Arabic : الحرم الشريف‎‎, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Quds ī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem"), a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem , is one of the most important religious sites in the world. It has been venerated as a holy site for thousands of years by Judaism , Christianity , and Islam . The present site is dominated by three monumental structures from the early Umayyad period : the al-Aqsa Mosque , the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of the Chain , as well as four minarets
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Siege Of Jerusalem (587 BC)
In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
laid siege to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in the summer of 587 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Siege * 2 Chronological notes * 3 Timeline of events in final siege * 4 References SIEGEFollowing the siege of 597 BC , the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar installed Zedekiah
Zedekiah
as tributary king of Judah , at the age of 21. However, Zedekiah
Zedekiah
revolted against Babylon, and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra , the king of Egypt . Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah and began a siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in December 589 BC. During this siege, the duration of which was either 18 or 30 months, "every worst woe befell the city, which drank the cup of God's fury to the dregs"
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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peck with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point end route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Siege Of Jerusalem (597 BC)
In 605 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
, king of Babylon
Babylon
defeated Pharaoh Necho at the Battle of Carchemish , and subsequently invaded Judah . To avoid the destruction of Jerusalem, King Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
of Judah , in his third year, changed allegiances from Egypt to Babylon. He paid tribute from the treasury in Jerusalem, some temple artifacts and some of the royal family and nobility as hostages. In 601 BC, during the fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully attempted to invade Egypt and was repulsed with heavy losses. The failure led to numerous rebellions among the states of the Levant
Levant
which owed allegiance to Babylon, including Judah , where King Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
stopped paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar and took a pro-Egyptian position. Nebuchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions
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Sack Of Jerusalem (10th Century BC)
The SACK OF JERUSALEM is an event described in the First Book of Kings of the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament , and, with some differences, in the Second Book of Chronicles . According to these sources it took place in the 5th year of the reign of Rehoboam , following the death of his father, Solomon . This event is thought to have occurred c.925 BC when the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak supposedly captured and pillaged Jerusalem. Possibly this was the same Pharaoh as the historical Shoshenq I who invaded Canaan following the Battle of Bitter Lakes . Shishak (Hebrew : שישק‎‎) raided the Kingdom of Judah with his allies, including the Kushites , taking a number of hill towns and sacking Jerusalem , all without fighting. Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made; Rehoboam replaced them with brass ones
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Siege Of Jebus
The SIEGE OF JEBUS is a siege described in biblical passages as having occurred when Israelites under King David of Israel besieged the Jebusite city of Jerusalem , then known as Jebus. The Israelites gained access by a surprise assault, making Jebus the capital of a united kingdom of Israel. The identification of Jebus with Jerusalem has been challenged. Niels Peter Lemche notes that every non-biblical mention of Jerusalem found in the ancient Near East refers to the city with the name Jerusalem, offering as an example the Amarna letters which are dated to the 14th century BCE and call Jerusalem Urasalimmu. He states that "There is no evidence of Jebus and the Jebusites outside of the Old Testament
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Siege Of Jerusalem (1187)
Decisive Ayyubid victory * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
surrendered by Balian of Ibelin to Saladin * Fall of the First Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
BELLIGERENTS Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Ayyubid Sultanate
Ayyubid Sultanate
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Balian of Ibelin Heraclius of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Saladin
Saladin
STRENGTHUnknown, 60 impromptu Ibelin knights, plus the city watch of men-at-arms, archers and people recruited into the city's defence * likely strength around 4,000-6,000 menUnknown, the army primarily made up of the surviving army from the Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin
and reinforcements gathered from Syria
Syria
and Egypt
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Siege Of Jerusalem (1244)
The 1244 SIEGE OF JERUSALEM took place after the Sixth Crusade , when the Khwarezmians conquered the city on July 15, 1244. SEQUENCE OF EVENTSFrederick II, Holy Roman Emperor led the Sixth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1228, and claimed the kingship of Jerusalem by right of his wife, Queen Yolande of Jerusalem , who had inherited the title of 'Queen of Jerusalem' from her mother, Maria of Montferrat , the wife of John of Brienne . The size of Frederick II's army and his reputation was sufficient to regain Jerusalem, Bethlehem , Nazareth and a number of neighbouring castles by treaty from the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil . However, Jerusalem did not remain for long in Christian hands, as there was not enough Christian-held hinterland to make it defensible. The Ayyubids invited the free-roaming Khwarazmian clans, whose empire had been destroyed by the Mongols , to reconquer the city
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Hebrew University Of Jerusalem
A UNIVERSITY ( Latin
Latin
: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary ) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines . Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education . The word "university" is derived from the Latin
Latin
universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars." Universities were created in Italy
Italy
and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages
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Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
THE TISCH FAMILY ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS IN JERUSALEM (Hebrew : גן החיות התנ"כי בירושלים על שם משפחת טיש‎‎, Arabic : حديقة الحيوان الكتابية في أورشليم القدس‎‎ Ḥadīqat al-Ḥaiwān Ūrushalīm al-Quds), popularly known as the JERUSALEM BIBLICAL ZOO, is a zoo located in the Malha neighborhood of Jerusalem , Israel . It is famous for its collection of wildlife featured in the Hebrew Bible , as well as its success in breeding endangered species . According to Dun and Bradstreet , the Biblical Zoo was the most popular tourist attraction in Israel from 2005 to 2007, and logged a record 738,000 visitors in 2009. The zoo had about 55,000 members in 2009
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Mayor Of Jerusalem
The MAYOR OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM is head of the executive branch of the political system in Jerusalem, The Jerusalem Municipality
Jerusalem Municipality
. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property, most public agencies, and enforces all city and state laws within Jerusalem . The mayor's office is located in Safra Square
Safra Square
; it has jurisdiction over all the city's neighborhoods. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including Directors who head city departments, and his or her deputy mayors
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Battle For Jerusalem
BATTLE FOR JERUSALEM (1948) Part of 1948 Palestine War The Arab Legion attacking the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem, May 1948
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Mutasarrifate Of Jerusalem
Flag Vital Cuinet 's 1896 map of Syria, including the "Mutessariflik de Jerusalem" CAPITAL Jerusalem
Jerusalem
HISTORY • Established 1872 • British conquest 1917 AREA • 1862 12,486 km2 (4,821 sq mi) POPULATION • 1897 298,653 TODAY PART OF Egypt
Egypt
Israel
Israel
Jordan
Jordan
Palestine The MUTASARRIFATE OF JERUSALEM (Ottoman Turkish : Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı‎; Arabic : متصرفية القدس الشريف‎), also known as the SANJAK OF JERUSALEM, was an Ottoman district with special administrative status established in 1872. The district encompassed Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as well as Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, Hebron
Hebron
, Jaffa , Gaza and Beersheba
Beersheba

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Assyrian Siege Of Jerusalem
BOTH SIDES CLAIM VICTORY * Kingdom of Judah subjugated * King Hezekiah of Judah remains in power BELLIGERENTS Neo-Assyrian Empire Kingdom of Judah COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Sennacherib\'s Rabshakeh Sennacherib\'s Rabsaris Sennacherib\'s Tartan King Hizkiyahu of Judah Eliakim ben Hilkiyahu Yoah ben Asaf Shebna STRENGTH Unknown Unknown CASUALTIES AND LOSSESUnknown ANCIENT SOURCES: * 185,000 (According to the Biblical account) Unknown * v * t * e Campaigns of the Neo-Assyrian Empire * Rise of Neo-Assyria * Campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II (Suru ) * Campaigns of Shalmaneser III (Qarqar ) * Campaigns of Shamshi-Adad V (Dur-Papsukkal ) * Campaigns of Tiglath Pileser III (Gezer ) * War with Urartu * Campaigns of Sargon II * Campaigns of Sennacherib (Sennacherib\'s campaign in Judah , Azekah , Lachish , Jerusalem , Diyala River , Halule , 1st Babylon )
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List Of Mountain Types
Mountains and hills can be characterized in several ways. Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history. Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their shape. Finally, many mountains can be characterized by the type of rock that make up their composition
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Meleke
MELEKE (Arabic : ملكي‎‎, "royal", "kingly")—also transliterated MELEKEH or MALAKI—is a lithologic type of white, coarsely crystalline, thickly bedded limestone found in the Judean Hills in Israel and the West Bank . It has been used in the traditional architecture of Jerusalem since ancient times, especially in Herodian architecture . Though it is often popularly referred to as Jerusalem stone , this phrase can refer to a number of different types of stone found and used in, or associated with, Jerusalem. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Description * 3 History * 4 In archaeological excavations * 5 See also * 6 References NAMEMeleke is an Arabic word that originated in the jargon of local stonemasons . Translated as "kingly stone", (or "queenly"), "royal stone", or "stone of kings", the source of the word's meaning may derive from meleke's use in all the monumental tombs of Jerusalem
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