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Telex
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages. Telex
Telex
was a major method of sending written messages electronically between businesses in the post World War II period. Its usage went into decline as the fax machine grew in popularity in the 1980s. The "telex" term refers to the network, not the teleprinters; point-to-point teleprinter systems had been in use long before telex exchanges were built in the 1930s. Teleprinters evolved from telegraph systems, and, like the telegraph, they used binary signals, which means that symbols were represented by the presence or absence of a pre-defined level of electric current. This is significantly different from the analog telephone system, which used varying voltages to encode frequency information
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Music Box
A music box or musical box is an automatic musical instrument in a box that produces musical notes by using a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc to pluck the tuned teeth (or lamellae) of a steel comb. They were developed from musical snuff boxes of the 18th century and called carillons à musique (French for "chimes of music"). Some of the more complex boxes also contain a tiny drum and/or bells in addition to the metal comb.Contents1 History1.1 Evolving box production2 Coin-operated models 3 Parts 4 Repertoire 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links8.1 Audio of historical music boxesHistory[edit]Typical table music box, with six interchangeable cylinders.The original snuff boxes were tiny containers which could fit into a gentleman's waistcoat pocket. The music boxes could have any size from that of a hat box to a large piece of furniture, but most were tabletop specimens
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Electronic Data Interchange
Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the concept of businesses communicating electronically certain information that was traditionally communicated on paper. The two classic examples of such information are purchase orders and invoices. Standards for EDI exist to facilitate parties transacting such instruments without having to make special arrangements. EDI has existed for more than 30 years, and there are many EDI standards (including X12, EDIFACT, ODETTE, etc.), some of which address the needs of specific industries or regions. It also refers specifically to a family of standards. In 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology defined electronic data interchange as "the computer-to-computer interchange of strictly formatted messages that represent documents other than monetary instruments. EDI implies a sequence of messages between two parties, either of whom may serve as originator or recipient
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Enquiry Character
In computer communications, enquiry is a transmission-control character that requests a response from the receiving station[1] with which a connection has been set up.[2] It represents a signal intended to trigger a response at the receiving end, to see if it is still present. The response, an answer-back code to the terminal that transmitted the WRU (who are you) signal, may include station identification, the type of equipment in service, and the status of the remote station. Teletype Model 33
Teletype Model 33
answer-back drum (brown, lower center left) for coding inquiry response message.Some teleprinters had a "programmable" drum, which could hold a 20 or 22 character message. The message was encoded on the drum by breaking tabs off the drum
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Bell 103 Modem
The Bell 103 modem or Bell 103 dataset was the second commercial modem for computers, released by AT&T Corporation in 1962. It allowed digital data to be transmitted over regular unconditioned telephone lines at a speed of 300 bits per second
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Time-sharing
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.[1] Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one,[2] and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications.Contents1 History1.1 Batch processing 1.2 Time-sharing 1.3 Development 1.4 Time-sharing
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Computer Sound Card
 via one of:PCI ISA USB IEEE 1394 IBM PC Parallel Port PCI-E MCA (rare) PCMCIA interfaces (PC Card, Expresscard)Line in or out: via one of:Analogue - phone, RCA or DIN connector Digital - RCA, TOSLink or AES/EBUMicrophone via one of:Phone connector PIN connectorCommon manufacturers Creative Labs (and subsidiary E-mu Systems) Realtek C-Media MARIAN digital audio electronics M-Audio Turtle Beach ASUSA sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications. Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to those found on plug-in cards. The integrated sound system is often still referred to as a sound card
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Bell 101
The Bell 101 dataset or Bell 101 modem was the first commercial modem for computers, released by AT&T Corporation in 1958 for use by SAGE and in 1959 made commercial shortly after AT&T's Bell Labs announced their 110 baud modulation frequencies.[1][2] The Bell 101 modem allowed digital data to be transmitted over regular unconditioned telephone lines at a speed of 110 bits per second. Bell 101 modems are no longer in use and were quickly replaced by its successor the Bell 103 modem. SAGE modems were described by AT&T's Bell Labs as conforming to the Bell 101 dataset standard. The Bell 101 modems were the first commercial equipment to use ASCII, which was called "four row", as opposed to the Baudot "three row" 6-bit/character code which was predominant from 1908–1962, prior to the rise of EBCDIC. See also[edit]List of device bandwidths Bell 103 modem Bell 202 modemReferences[edit]^ "Getting connected: a history of modems". TechRadar
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Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
plc (LSE: RDSA, RDSB), commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and incorporated in the United Kingdom.[2] It is one of the six oil and gas "supermajors" and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues (and the largest based in Europe).[1] Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies;[3] in that year its revenues were equivalent to 84% of the Netherlands' $556 billion GDP.[4] Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, transport, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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ALL-IN-1
ALL-IN-1 was an office automation product developed and sold by Digital Equipment Corporation in the 1980s. HP now maintains the current version Office Server V3.2 for OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS VAX systems.[1]ALLIN1 Title PageALLIN1 WPS Plus Help ScreenALL-IN-1 was advertised as an office automation system including functionality in Electronic Messaging, Word Processing and Time Management. It offered an application development platform and customization capabilities that ranged from scripting to code-level integration. ALL-IN-1 was designed and developed by Skip Walter, John Churin and Marty Skinner from Digital Equipment Corporation who began work in 1977[2] .[3] Sheila Chance was hired as the software engineering manager in 1981. The first version of the software was called CP/OSS, the Charlotte Package of Office System Services, named after the location of the developers
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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West Berlin
West Berlin
Berlin
(German: Berlin
Berlin
(West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin
Berlin
during the years of the Cold War. There was no specific date on which the sectors of Berlin
Berlin
occupied by the Western Allies became "West Berlin", but 1949 is widely accepted as the year in which the name was adopted. West Berlin
Berlin
was formally controlled by the Western Allies and formed a de facto part of West Germany, even though it was entirely surrounded by the Soviet-controlled East Berlin
Berlin
and East Germany. West Berlin
Berlin
had great symbolic significance during the Cold War, as it was widely considered by westerners as an "island of freedom"
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West Germany
50°44′02″N 7°05′59″E / 50.73389°N 7.09972°E / 50.73389; 7.09972Coordinates: 50°44′02″N 7°05′59″E / 50.73389°N 7.09972°E / 50.73389; 7.09972Languages GermanGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional republicPresident •  1949–1959 Theodor Heuss •  1959–1969 Heinrich Lübke •  1969–1974 Gustav Heinemann •  1974–1979 Walter Scheel •  1979–1984 Karl Carstens •  1984–1990 Richard von WeizsäckerbChancellor •  1949–1963 Konrad Adenauer •  1963–1966 Ludwig Erhard •  1966–1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger •  1969–1974 Willy Brandt •  1974–1982 Helmut Schmidt •  1982–1990 Helmut KohlcLegislature BundestagHistorical era Cold War •  Formation 23 May 19
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Baud
In telecommunication and electronics, baud (/ˈbɔːd/; symbol: Bd) is a common measure of the speed of communication over a data channel. Technically speaking, it is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second or pulses per second. It is the number of distinct symbol changes (signaling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal or a line code. Baud
Baud
was the prevalent measure for data transmission speed until replaced by the term bps (bits per second), to which it closely approximates. If there are only two symbols in the alphabet (typically 0 and 1), then baud and bits per second (bps) are equivalent. Baud
Baud
is related to gross bit rate or symbol rate expressed as bits per second
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