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Telex
The TELEX network is a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages. The term refers to the network, not the teleprinters; point-to-point teleprinter systems had been in use long before telex exchanges were formed starting in the 1930s. Teleprinters evolved from telegraph systems, and, like the telegraph, they used the presence or absence of a pre-defined level of current to represent the mark or space symbols. This is as opposed to the analog telephone system, which used differing voltages to encode frequency information. For this reason, telex exchanges were entirely separate from the telephone system, with their own signalling standards, exchanges and system of "telex numbers" (the counterpart of a telephone number). When telephone and telex exchange equipment was co-located, which was not uncommon, the different signalling systems would sometimes cause interference
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Digital Equipment Corporation
DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION, also known as DEC and using the trademark DIGITAL, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals . Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq
Compaq
, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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ALL-IN-1
ALL-IN-1 was an office automation product developed and sold by Digital Equipment Corporation in the 1980s. HP now maintains the current version Office Server V3.2 for OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS VAX systems. ALLIN1 Title Page ALLIN1 WPS Plus Help Screen ALL-IN-1 was advertised as an office automation system including functionality in Electronic Messaging, Word Processing and Time Management. It offered an application development platform and customization capabilities that ranged from scripting to code-level integration. ALL-IN-1 was designed and developed by Skip Walter , John Churin and Marty Skinner from Digital Equipment Corporation who began work in 1977 . Sheila Chance was hired as the software engineering manager in 1981. The first version of the software was called CP/OSS, the Charlotte Package of Office System Services, named after the location of the developers
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Royal Dutch Shell
ROYAL DUTCH SHELL PLC (LSE : RDSA, RDSB), commonly known as SHELL, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and incorporated in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is one of the six oil and gas "supermajors " and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues (and the largest based in Europe). Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies; in that year its revenues were equivalent to 84% of the Netherlands' $556 billion GDP. Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production , refining , distribution and marketing , petrochemicals , power generation and trading . It also has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels , wind and hydrogen
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Music Box
A MUSIC BOX or MUSICAL BOX is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth (or lamellae ) of a steel comb . They were developed from musical snuff boxes of the 18th century and called carillons à musique. Some of the more complex boxes also contain a tiny drum and/or bells in addition to the metal comb. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Evolving box production * 2 Coin-operated models * 3 Parts * 4 Repertoire * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links * 8.1 Audio of historical music boxes HISTORY Typical table music box, with six interchangeable cylinders. The original snuff boxes were tiny containers which could fit into a gentleman's waistcoat pocket. The music boxes could have any size from that of a hat box to a large piece of furniture, but most were tabletop specimens
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Enquiry Character
In computer communications, ENQUIRY is a transmission-control character that requests a response from the receiving station with which a connection has been set up. It represents a signal intended to trigger a response at the receiving end, to see if it is still present. The response, an answer-back code to the terminal that transmitted the WRU (who are you) signal, may include station identification, the type of equipment in service, and the status of the remote station. Teletype Model 33
Teletype Model 33
answer-back drum (brown, lower center left) for coding inquiry response message. Some teleprinters had a "programmable" drum, which could hold a 20 or 22 character message. The message was encoded on the drum by breaking tabs off the drum. This sequence could be transmitted upon receipt of an enquiry signal, if enabled, or by pressing the "Here is" key on the keyboard
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Microsoft Mail
MICROSOFT MAIL (or MSMAIL) was the name given to several early Microsoft e-mail products for local area networks , primarily two architectures: one for Macintosh networks, and one for PC architecture-based LANs. All were eventually replaced by the Exchange and Outlook product lines. CONTENTS * 1 Mac Networks * 2 PC Networks * 2.1 Server Architecture * 2.2 Client Architecture * 2.3 Gateways * 3 References MAC NETWORKSThe first Microsoft Mail product was introduced in 1988 for AppleTalk Networks. It was based on InterMail, a product that Microsoft purchased and updated. An MS-DOS client was added for PCs on AppleTalk networks. It was later sold off to become QUARTERDECK MAIL, then STAR NINE MAIL, and has long since been discontinued. PC NETWORKSThe second Microsoft Mail product, MICROSOFT MAIL FOR PC NETWORKS V2.1, was introduced in 1991
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Bell 101
The BELL 101 DATASET or BELL 101 MODEM was the first commercial modem for computers , released by AT&T Corporation in 1958 for use by SAGE and in 1959 made commercial shortly after AT&T's Bell Labs announced their 110 baud modulation frequencies. The Bell 101 modem allowed digital data to be transmitted over regular unconditioned telephone lines at a speed of 110 bits per second . Bell 101 modems are no longer in use and were quickly replaced by its successor the Bell 103 modem . SAGE modems were described by AT"> * ^ "Getting connected: a history of modems". TechRadar. Retrieved 2017-07-01. * ^ "Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. List of Significant Innovations & Discoveries (1925-1983)". Retrieved 2017-07-01
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Current Loop
In electrical signalling an analog CURRENT LOOP is used where a device must be monitored or controlled remotely over a pair of conductors. Only one current level can be present at any time. A major application of current loops is the industry standard 4-20 mA current loop for process control applications, where they are extensively used to carry signals from process instrumentation to PID controllers , SCADA
SCADA
systems, and Programmable logic controllers . They are also used to transmit controller outputs to the modulating field devices such as control valves . These loops have the advantages of simplicity and noise immunity, and have a large international user and equipment supplier base. Some 4-20 mA field devices can be powered by the current loop itself, removing the need for separate power supplies, and the "smart" HART Protocol uses the loop for communications between field devices and controllers
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Time-sharing
In computing , TIME-SHARING is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time. Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one, and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications
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Bell 103 Modem
The BELL 103 MODEM or BELL 103 DATASET was the second commercial modem for computers , released by AT"> * v * t * e Amateur radio digital modes FREQUENCY-SHIFT KEYING (FSK) * RTTY * AMTOR / SITOR * PACTOR * CLOVER2000 * Packet radio (Bell 103 * Bell 202 ) MULTIPLE FREQUENCY-SHIFT KEYING (MFSK) * Olivia MFSK * Contestia * JT65 * FSK441 * JT6M * WSPR PHASE-SHIFT KEYING (PSK) * PSK31 * PSK63 * Q15X25 CODFM * MT63 (based on PSK) NON-TRADITIONAL DIGITAL MODES * Hellschreiber (Feld-Hell) * On-off keying * Continuous wave * Modulated continuous wave * Pulse modulation * Frequency-hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) * Direct Sequence Spread Spectr
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Computer Sound Card
via one of: * PCI * ISA * USB * IEEE 1394 * IBM PC Parallel Port * PCI-E * MCA (rare) * PCMCIA interfaces (PC Card , Expresscard )Line in or out: via one of: * Analogue - phone , RCA or DIN connector * Digital - RCA, TOSLink or AES/EBU Microphone via one of: * Phone connector * PIN connector COMMON MANUFACTURERS Creative Labs (and subsidiary E-mu Systems ) Realtek C-Media MARIAN digital audio electronics M-Audio Turtle Beach ASUS A SOUND CARD (also known as an AUDIO CARD) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs . The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation, education and entertainment (games) and video projection
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Electronic Data Interchange
ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) is an electronic communication method that provides standards for exchanging data via any electronic means. By adhering to the same standard, two different companies or organizations, even in two different countries, can electronically exchange documents (such as purchase orders , invoices , shipping notices, and many others). EDI has existed for more than 30 years, and there are many EDI standards (including X12 , EDIFACT , ODETTE , etc.), some of which address the needs of specific industries or regions. It also refers specifically to a family of standards . In 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
defined electronic data interchange as "the computer-to-computer interchange of strictly formatted messages that represent documents other than monetary instruments
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Baud
In telecommunication and electronics , BAUD (/ˈbɔːd/ ; symbol: Bd) is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second or pulses per second. It is the number of distinct symbol changes (signaling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal or a line code . Digital data modem manufacturers commonly define the baud as the modulation rate of data transmission and express it as bits per second. Baud
Baud
is related to gross bit rate expressed as bits per second. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Relationship to gross bit rate * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONSThe SYMBOL DURATION TIME, also known as unit interval , can be directly measured as the time between transitions by looking into an eye diagram of an oscilloscope
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