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Teleprinter
A TELEPRINTER (TELETYPEWRITER, TELETYPE or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages from point to point and point-to-multipoint over various types of communications channels. They were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers , sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage (either from typed input or from data received from a remote source) and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. Teleprinters could use a variety of different communication media. These included a simple pair of wires, dedicated non-switched telephone circuits (leased lines), switched networks that operated similarly to the public telephone network (telex ), and radio and microwave links (telex-on-radio or TOR). A teleprinter attached to a modem could also communicate through standard switched public telephone lines
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Printing Telegraph
The PRINTING TELEGRAPH was invented by Royal Earl House in 1846. House's equipment could transmit around 40 instantly readable words per minute , but was difficult to manufacture in bulk. The printer could copy and print out up to 2,000 words per hour. This invention was first put in operation and exhibited at the Mechanics Institute in New York in 1844. House’s Type Printing Telegraph of 1849 was Royal Earl House's second and much improved type-printing instrument and was widely used on lines on America's east coast from 1850. Hughes telegraph
Hughes telegraph
devices, which also had piano style keyboards, were very popular in France, where there were likely many more piano and harpsichord players than telegraphers
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Daisy Wheel Printer
DAISY WHEEL PRINTING is an impact printing technology invented in 1969 by David S. Lee at Diablo Data Systems . It uses interchangeable pre-formed type elements, each with typically 96 glyphs , to generate high-quality output comparable to premium typewriters such as the IBM Selectric , but two to three times faster. Daisy wheel printing was used in electronic typewriters , word processors and computers from 1972. The daisy wheel is considered to be so named because of its resemblance to the daisy flower . By 1980 daisy wheel printers had become the dominant technology for high-quality text printing. Dot-matrix impact , thermal , or line printers were used where higher speed or image printing were required and poor print quality was acceptable
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Royal Earl House
ROYAL EARL HOUSE (9 September 1814 – 25 February 1895) was the inventor of the first printing telegraph , which is now kept in the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
. His nephew Henry Alonzo House is also a noted early American inventor. Royal Earl House spent his childhood in Vermont
Vermont
experimenting, designing, and building, a habit which would earn him distinction as an adult. He once caught a toad , skinned it, placed a set of springs in the skin and made it hop. Around 1840, he went to Buffalo, New York to live with relatives and attend law school in that town. However, he read a work on electricity which so inspired him that he decided to give up law and study the science of electricity instead. He was also interested in mechanics , chemistry and magnetism . By 1846, the Morse telegraph service was operational between Washington, DC, and New York
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Alexander Bain (inventor)
ALEXANDER BAIN (12 October 1811 – 2 January 1877) was a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock . He installed the railway telegraph lines between Edinburgh and Glasgow. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 Electric clocks * 2.1.1 Surviving examples * 2.2 Facsimile machine * 2.3 Chemical telegraph * 3 Later life * 4 Death and legacy * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 Patents * 8 External links EARLY LIFEBain was born in Watten , Caithness
Caithness
, Scotland. His father was a crofter . He had a twin sister, Margaret, and, in total, he had six sisters and six brothers. Bain did not excel in school and was apprenticed to a clockmaker in Wick . CAREER Electric clock, Alexander Bain, London, ca. 1845 (Deutsches Uhrenmuseum , Inv
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Computer Monitor
A COMPUTER MONITOR is an output device which displays the information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises the display device , circuitry , casing, and power supply. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT). Monitors are connected to the computer via VGA , Digital Visual Interface (DVI), HDMI
HDMI
, DisplayPort
DisplayPort
, Thunderbolt , low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) or other proprietary connectors and signals. Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality
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Unix
UNIX (/ˈjuː.nɪks/ ; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking , multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson
Ken Thompson
, Dennis Ritchie , and others. Initially intended for use inside the Bell System
Bell System
, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties from the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial variants of Unix
Unix
from vendors such as the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
( BSD
BSD
), Microsoft
Microsoft
( Xenix
Xenix
), IBM ( AIX
AIX
) and Sun Microsystems (Solaris )
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Mechanics Institute
MECHANICS\' INSTITUTES are educational establishments, originally formed to provide adult education , particularly in technical subjects, to working men. Similar organisation are sometimes simply called Institutes . As such, they were often funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would ultimately benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees (such philanthropy was shown by, among others, Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson
, James Nasmyth
James Nasmyth
, John Davis Barnett and Joseph Whitworth
Joseph Whitworth
). The Mechanics' Institutes
Mechanics' Institutes
were used as 'libraries' for the adult working class, and provided them with an alternative pastime to gambling and drinking in pubs
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Letter Frequencies
The FREQUENCY OF LETTERS in text has been studied for use in cryptanalysis , and frequency analysis in particular, dating back to the Iraqi mathematician Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
(c. 801–873 AD), who formally developed the method (the ciphers breakable by this technique go back at least to the Caesar cipher
Caesar cipher
invented by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, so this method could have been explored in classical times). California Job Case Letter frequency
Letter frequency
analysis gained additional importance in Europe with the development of movable type in 1450 AD, where one must estimate the amount of type required for each letterform, as evidenced by the variations in letter compartment size in typographer's type cases
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Morkrum
JOY STERLING MORTON (September 27, 1855 – May 10, 1934) was an American businessman and entrepreneur best known for founding Morton Salt and establishing the Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois
Lisle, Illinois
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Brand names * 3 Civic duties * 4 Morton Arboretum * 5 Arbor Lodge * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born on September 27, 1855 in Nebraska City, Nebraska . His mother, Caroline Joy, was an accomplished artist, musician, and gardener. His father, Julius Sterling Morton , a newspaperman and a leader in Nebraska territorial and state politics, was central to the founding of Arbor Day . J. Sterling Morton served as United States Secretary of Agriculture in the second administration (1893–1897) of President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

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Federal Aviation Administration
The FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation . These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management , the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. CONTENTS * 1 Major functions * 2 Organizations * 3 Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations * 4 History * 5 21st century * 5.1 FAA reauthorization and air traffic control reform * 6 Criticism * 6.1 Conflicting roles * 6.2 Changes to air traffic controller application process * 7 List of FAA Administrators * 8 FAA process * 8.1 Designated Engineering Representative * 8.2 Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR) * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links MAJOR FUNCTIONSThe FAA's roles include: * Regulating U.S
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Morton Salt
MORTON SALT is an American food company producing salt for food, water conditioning, industrial, agricultural, and road/highway use. Based in Chicago
Chicago
, the business is North America's leading producer and marketer of salt. It is a subsidiary of the German mining company K+S . Morton Salt
Salt
facility in Chicago, Illinois
Chicago, Illinois
Salt mounds at Morton Salt
Salt
in Newark, California CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Company information * 3 In popular culture * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links HISTORYThe company began in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois
Illinois
, in 1848 as a small sales agency, E. I. Wheeler, started by the Onondaga salt companies to sell their salt to the Midwest
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Joy Morton
JOY STERLING MORTON (September 27, 1855 – May 10, 1934) was an American businessman and entrepreneur best known for founding Morton Salt and establishing the Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois
Lisle, Illinois
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Brand names * 3 Civic duties * 4 Morton Arboretum * 5 Arbor Lodge * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born on September 27, 1855 in Nebraska City, Nebraska . His mother, Caroline Joy, was an accomplished artist, musician, and gardener. His father, Julius Sterling Morton , a newspaperman and a leader in Nebraska territorial and state politics, was central to the founding of Arbor Day . J. Sterling Morton served as United States Secretary of Agriculture in the second administration (1893–1897) of President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

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Control Character
In computing and telecommunication , a CONTROL CHARACTER or NON-PRINTING CHARACTER is a code point (a number ) in a character set , that does not represent a written symbol. They are used as in-band signaling to cause effects other than the addition of a symbol to the text. All other characters are mainly PRINTING, PRINTABLE, or GRAPHIC CHARACTERS , except perhaps for the "space" character (see ASCII printable characters ). All entries in the ASCII
ASCII
table below code 32 (technically the C0 control code set) are of this kind, including CR and LF used to separate lines of text. The code 127 (DEL ) is also a control character. Extended ASCII
ASCII
sets defined by ISO 8859 added the codes 128 through 159 as control characters, this was primarily done so that if the high bit was stripped it would not change a printing character to a C0 control code, but there have been some assignments here, in particular NEL
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Carriage Return
A CARRIAGE RETURN, sometimes known as a CARTRIDGE RETURN and often shortened to CR, or RETURN, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text. It is closely associated with the line feed and newline concepts, although it can be considered separately in its own right. CONTENTS * 1 Typewriters * 2 Computers * 3 See also * 4 References TYPEWRITERSOriginally, the term "carriage return" referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter . For machines where the type element was fixed and the paper held in a moving carriage, this lever was operated after typing a line of text to cause the carriage to return to the far right so the type element would be aligned to the left side of the paper. The lever would also usually feed the paper to advance to the next line. Many electric typewriters such as IBM Electric or Underwood Electric made carriage return to be another key on the keyboard instead of a lever
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Time-sharing
In computing , TIME-SHARING is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time. Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one, and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications
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