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Teleprinter
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. The machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage (either from typed input or from data received from a remote source) and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. Teleprinters could use a variety of different communication media. These included a simple pair of wires; dedicated non-switched telephone circuits (leased lines); switched networks that operated similarly to the public telephone network (telex); and radio and microwave links (telex-on-radio, or TOR)
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Mechanics Institute
Mechanics' Institutes are educational establishments, originally formed to provide adult education, particularly in technical subjects, to working men. Similar organisation are sometimes simply called Institutes. As such, they were often funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would ultimately benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees (such philanthropy was shown by, among others, Robert Stephenson, James Nasmyth, John Davis Barnett and Joseph Whitworth)
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Computer Data Storage
Computer
Computer
data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU
CPU
consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
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Daisy Wheel Printer
Daisy wheel printing is an impact printing technology invented in 1969 by David S. Lee at Diablo Data Systems. It uses interchangeable pre-formed type elements, each with typically 96 glyphs, to generate high-quality output comparable to premium typewriters such as the IBM Selectric, but two to three times faster. Daisy wheel printing was used in electronic typewriters, word processors and computers from 1972. The daisy wheel is considered to be so named because of its resemblance to the daisy flower.[1] By 1980 daisy wheel printers had become the dominant technology for high-quality text printing. Dot-matrix impact, thermal, or line printers were used where higher speed or image printing were required and poor print quality was acceptable
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Donald Murray (inventor)
Donald
Donald
is a masculine given name derived from the Gaelic name Dòmhnall.[1] This comes from the Proto-Celtic *Dumno-ualos ("world-ruler" or "world-wielder").[2][3][4] The final -d in Donald
Donald
is partly derived from a misinterpretation of the Gaelic pronunciation by English speakers, and partly associated with the spelling of similar-sounding Germanic names, such as Ronald. A short form of Donald
Donald
is Don. Pet forms of Donald
Donald
include Donnie and Donny
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Letter Frequencies
The frequency of letters in text has been studied for use in cryptanalysis, and frequency analysis in particular, dating back to the Iraqi mathematician Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
(c
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Royal Earl House
Royal Earl House (9 September 1814 – 25 February 1895) was the inventor of the first printing telegraph, which is now kept in the Smithsonian Institution. His nephew Henry Alonzo House is also a noted early American inventor. Royal Earl House spent his childhood in Vermont
Vermont
experimenting, designing, and building, a habit which would earn him distinction as an adult. He once caught a toad, skinned it, placed a set of springs in the skin and made it hop. Around 1840, he went to Buffalo, New York to live with relatives and attend law school in that town. However, he read a work on electricity which so inspired him that he decided to give up law and study the science of electricity instead. He was also interested in mechanics, chemistry and magnetism. By 1846, the Morse telegraph service was operational between Washington, DC, and New York
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Alexander Bain (inventor)
Alexander Bain (12 October 1811 – 2 January 1877)[1] was a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock. He installed the railway telegraph lines between Edinburgh and Glasgow.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Electric clocks2.1.1 Surviving examples2.2 Facsimile machine 2.3 Chemical telegraph3 Later life 4 Death and legacy 5 References 6 Further reading 7 Patents 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Bain was born in Watten, Caithness, Scotland. His father was a crofter. He had a twin sister, Margaret, and, in total, he had six sisters and six brothers. Bain did not excel in school and was apprenticed to a clockmaker in Wick. Career[edit]Electric clock, Alexander Bain, London, ca. 1845 (Deutsches Uhrenmuseum, Inv
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Control Character
In computing and telecommunication, a control character or non-printing character is a code point (a number) in a character set, that does not represent a written symbol. They are used as in-band signaling to cause effects other than the addition of a symbol to the text. All other characters are mainly printing, printable, or graphic characters, except perhaps for the "space" character (see ASCII printable characters). All entries in the ASCII
ASCII
table below code 32 (technically the C0 control code set) are of this kind, including CR and LF used to separate lines of text. The code 127 (DEL) is also a control character. Extended ASCII
ASCII
sets defined by ISO 8859 added the codes 128 through 159 as control characters, this was primarily done so that if the high bit was stripped it would not change a printing character to a C0 control code, but there have been some assignments here, in particular NEL
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Unix
Unix
Unix
(/ˈjuːnɪks/; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.[3] Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix
Unix
variants from vendors like the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(BSD), Microsoft
Microsoft
(Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
(Solaris)
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Computer Monitor
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises the display device, circuitry, casing, and power supply. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT). Monitors are connected to the computer via VGA, Digital Visual Interface
Digital Visual Interface
(DVI), HDMI, DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) or other proprietary connectors and signals. Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality
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Carriage Return
A carriage return, sometimes known as a cartridge return and often shortened to CR, <CR> or return, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text. It is closely associated with the line feed and newline concepts, although it can be considered separately in its own right.Contents1 Typewriters 2 Computers 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypewriters[edit] Originally, the term "carriage return" referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter. For machines where the type element was fixed and the paper held in a moving carriage, this lever was operated after typing a line of text to cause the carriage to return to the far right so the type element would be aligned to the left side of the paper. The lever would also usually feed the paper to advance to the next line. Many electric typewriters such as IBM Electric or Underwood Electric made carriage return to be another key on the keyboard instead of a lever
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Switched Communication Network
In computer networking and telecommunications, a switched communication network is a communication network which uses switching for connection of two non-adjacent nodes. Switched communication networks are divided into circuit switched networks, message switched networks, and packet switched networks. See also[edit]Broadcast communication network Fully connected networkThis computer networking article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article related to telecommunications is a stub
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Time-sharing
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.[1] Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one,[2] and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications.Contents1 History1.1 Batch processing 1.2 Time-sharing 1.3 Development 1.4 Time-sharing
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Minicomputer
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s[1][2] and sold for much less than mainframe[3] and mid-size computers from IBM
IBM
and its direct competitors. In a 1970 survey, the New York Times
New York Times
suggested a consensus definition of a minicomputer as a machine costing less than US$25,000, with an input-output device such as a teleprinter and at least four thousand words of memory, that is capable of running programs in a higher level language, such as Fortran
Fortran
or BASIC.[4] The class formed a distinct group with its own software architectures and operating systems. Minis were designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching as distinct from calculation and record keeping. Many were sold indirectly to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) for final end use application
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Mainframe Computer
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron"[1]) are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing. They are larger and have more processing power than some other classes of computers: minicomputers, servers, workstations, and personal computers. The term originally referred to the large cabinets called "main frames" that housed the central processing unit and main memory of early computers.[2][3] Later, the term was used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from less powerful units.[4] Most large-scale computer system architectures were established in the 1960s, but continue to evolve
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