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Telegraphy
TELEGRAPHY (from Greek : τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals , beacons , reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy . The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Spanish People
Spain
Spain
Nationals 41,539,400 (for a total population of 47,059,533) HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS WITH SPANISH ANCESTRY IN FORMER COLONIES Nationals Abroad : 2,183,043 Total abroad: 2,183,043, which of them: 733,387 are born in Spain 1,303,043 are born in the country of residence 137,391 others REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS ARGENTINA 404,111 (92,610 born in Spain
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Samuel Thomas Von Sömmering
SAMUEL THOMAS VON SöMMERRING (28 January 1755 – 2 March 1830) was a German physician , anatomist , anthropologist , paleontologist and inventor . Sömmerring discovered the macula in the retina of the human eye . His investigations on the brain and the nervous system , on the sensory organs , on the embryo and its malformations, on the structure of the lungs , etc., made him one of the most important German anatomists. CAREER Portrait by Karl Thelott Sömmerring was born in Thorn , Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
( Toruń
Toruń
, Poland
Poland
) as the ninth child of the physician Johann Thomas Sömmerring. In 1774 he completed his education in Thorn and began to study medicine at the University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
. He visited Petrus Camper
Petrus Camper
lecturing at the University in Franeker
Franeker

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Germans
GERMANS (German : Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe
Central Europe
, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history . German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans
Germans
has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
since the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990, Germans
Germans
constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
divide
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Polymath
A POLYMATH (Greek : πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the 17th century; the related term, POLYHISTOR, is an ancient term with similar meaning. Polymaths include the great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance , the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will". Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism , that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible
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On-off Keying
ON-OFF KEYING (OOK) denotes the simplest form of amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation that represents digital data at the presence or absence of a carrier wave . In its simplest form, the presence of a carrier for a specific duration represents a binary one, while its absence for the same duration represents a binary zero. Some more sophisticated schemes vary these durations to convey additional information. It is analogous to unipolar encoding line code . On-off keying
On-off keying
is most commonly used to transmit Morse code over radio frequencies (referred to as CW (continuous wave ) operation), although in principle any digital encoding scheme may be used. OOK has been used in the ISM bands to transfer data between computers , for example. OOK is more spectrally efficient than frequency-shift keying , but more sensitive to noise when using a regenerative receiver or a poorly implemented superheterodyne receiver
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Pith
PITH, or MEDULLA, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants . Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant. In eudicots , pith is located in the center of the stem. In monocots , it extends also into flowering stems and roots. The pith is encircled by a ring of xylem ; the xylem, in turn, is encircled by a ring of phloem . While new pith growth is usually white or pale in color, as the tissue ages it commonly darkens to a deeper brown color. In trees pith is generally present in young growth, but in the trunk and older branches the pith often gets replaced - in great part - by xylem. In some plants, the pith in the middle of the stem may dry out and disintegrate, resulting in a hollow stem. A few plants, such as walnuts , have distinctive chambered pith with numerous short cavities (See image at middle right)
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Continuous Wave
A CONTINUOUS WAVE or CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency ; almost always a sine wave , that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration. Continuous wave
Continuous wave
is also the name given to an early method of radio transmission , in which a sinusoidal carrier wave is switched on and off. Information
Information
is carried in the varying duration of the on and off periods of the signal, for example by Morse code in early radio. In early wireless telegraphy radio transmission, CW waves were also known as "undamped waves", to distinguish this method from damped wave signals produced by earlier spark gap type transmitters
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Diplomatic Mission
A DIPLOMATIC MISSION is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state. In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the EMBASSY, which is the office of a country's diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country, whereas consulates are diplomatic missions which are not performed in the capital of the receiving state. As well as being a diplomatic mission to the country in which it is situated, it may also be a non-resident permanent mission to one or more other countries. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies
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Foreign Minister
A FOREIGN MINISTER or MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state 's foreign policy and relations . CONTENTS* 1 World contexts * 1.1 Difference in titles * 1.2 Powers of position * 1.3 Responsibilities * 2 Related articles and lists * 2.1 By year * 2.2 Country and territory-related articles and lists * 3 Former countries * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links WORLD CONTEXTSDIFFERENCE IN TITLESIn some nations, such as India
India
, the Foreign Minister is referred to as the " Minister for External Affairs " or, as in the case of Brazil , " Minister of Foreign Affairs " and of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, this position is known as the "Minister of External Relations"
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Lille
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. LILLE (French pronunciation: ( listen ); Dutch : Rijsel pronounced ; West Flemish : Rysel) is a city in northern France
France
, in French Flanders . On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium
Belgium
, it is the capital of the Hauts-de- France
France
region and the prefecture of the Nord department
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Condé-sur-l'Escaut
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. CONDé-SUR-L\'ESCAUT is a commune of the Nord department in northern France
France
. It lies on the border with Belgium
Belgium
. The population in 1999 was 10,527. Residents of the area are known as Condéens or Condéennes. The Mayor of Condé-sur-l'Escaut
Condé-sur-l'Escaut
is Gregory Lelong (2015)
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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe
Europe
and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution
Revolution
profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies
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Richard Lovell Edgeworth
Twenty two, including * Maria Edgeworth (1768–1849) * William Edgeworth (1794–1829) * Michael Pakenham Edgeworth (1812–1881) Edgeworthstown House, Ireland Library at Edgeworthstown House 1888 Edgeworth's proposed optical telegraph for use in Ireland. The rotational position of each one of the four indicators represented a number 1-7 (0 being "rest"), forming a four-digit number. The number stood for a particular word in a codebook. RICHARD LOVELL EDGEWORTH (31 May 1744 – 13 June 1817) was an Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
politician, writer and inventor. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYEdgeworth was born in Pierrepont Street, Bath, England , great-grandson of Sir Salathiel Lovell through his granddaughter, Jane Lovell
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Royal Society
THE PRESIDENT, COUNCIL AND FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON FOR IMPROVING NATURAL KNOWLEDGE, commonly known as the ROYAL SOCIETY, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". The Society is the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
's and Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
' Academy of Sciences and fulfills a number of roles; promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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Robert Hooke
ROBERT HOOKE FRS (/hʊk/ ; 28 July 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher , architect and polymath . His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666 , and eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes (the latter may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity). At one time he was simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society
Royal Society
, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry , and Surveyor to the City of London
London
after the Great Fire of London (in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire)
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