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Tashilhunpo Monastery
Tashi Lhunpo Monastery
Tashi Lhunpo Monastery
(Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་), founded in 1447 by the 1st Dalai Lama,[1] is a historic and culturally important monastery in Shigatse, the second-largest city in Tibet. The monastery was sacked when the Gorkha Kingdom
Gorkha Kingdom
invaded Tibet
Tibet
and captured Shigatse
Shigatse
in 1791 before a combined Tibetan and Chinese army drove them back as far as the outskirts of Kathmandu,[2] when they were forced to agree to keep the peace in the future, pay tribute every five years, and return what they had looted from Tashi Lhunpo.[3] The monastery is the traditional seat of successive Panchen Lamas, the second highest ranking tulku lineage in the Gelug
Gelug
tradition of Tibetan Buddhism
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Bhutan
Coordinates: 27°25′01″N 90°26′06″E / 27.417°N 90.435°E / 27.417; 90.435Kingdom of Bhutan འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ (Dzongkha) Druk
Druk
Gyal KhapFlagEmblemAnthem:  Druk
Druk

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Gurkha
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas (/ˈɡɜːrkə/ /ˈɡʊərkə/) with endonym Gorkhali (Nepali: गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent
Gurkha Contingent
Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world. Historically, the terms "Gurkha" and "Gorkhali" were synonymous with "Nepali",[1] which originates from the hill principality Gorkha Kingdom
Gorkha Kingdom
from which the Kingdom of Nepal
Kingdom of Nepal
expanded under Prithivi Narayan Shah.[2][3] The name may be traced to the medieval Hindu
Hindu
warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath[4] who has a historic shrine in Gorkha.[5] The word itself derived from Go-Raksha (Nepali:गोरक्षा), raksha becoming rakha (रखा)
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Thanka
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa
Kadampa
BuddhismShambhala BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuitBuddhahood BodhisattvaKalachakraPracticesGeneration stage Completion stagePhowaTantric techniques: Fourfold division:KriyayogaCharyayogaYogatantraAnuttarayogatantraTwofold division:Inner TantrasOuter TantrasThought forms and visualisation:MandalaMantraMudraT
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Richardson, Hugh E
Hugh Edward Richardson
Hugh Edward Richardson
CIE OBE FBA (22 December 1905 – 3 December 2000[2]) was an Indian Civil Service
Indian Civil Service
officer, British diplomat and Tibetologist. His academic work focused on the history of the Tibetan empire, and in particular on epigraphy. He was among the last Europeans to have known Tibet
Tibet
and its society before the Chinese invasions which began in 1950.Contents1 Biography and career 2 Personal interests 3 Works 4 Footnotes 5 ReferencesBiography and career[edit] Born in St
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia
/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. Mongolia
Mongolia
does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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People Of Nepal
In the 2011 census, Nepal's population was approximately 26 million people with a population growth rate of 1.35% and a median age of 21.6 years.[1] In 2016, the female median age was approximately 25 years old and the male median age was approximately 22 years old.[2] Only 4.4% of the population is estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising 681,252 females and 597,628 males. 61% of the population is between 15 and 64 years old, and 34.6% is younger than 14 years. In 2011, the Birth rate
Birth rate
is estimated to be 22.17 births per 1,000 people with an infant mortality rate of 46 deaths per 1,000 live births. Compared to the infant mortality rate in 2006 of 48 deaths per 1000 live births, the 2011 IMR is a slight decrease within that 5 year period
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People's Republic Of China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Red Guards (China)
Red Guards
Red Guards
(simplified Chinese: 红卫兵; traditional Chinese: 紅衛兵; pinyin: Hóng Wèibīng) were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.[1] According to a Red Guard leader, the movement's aims were as follows:Chairman Mao has defined our future as an armed revolutionary youth organization...So if Chairman Mao is our Red-Commander-in-Chief and we are his Red Guards, who can stop us? First we will make China
China
Maoist from inside out and then we will help the working people of other countries make the world red...And then the whole universe.[2]Despite being met with resistance early on, the Red Guards
Red Guards
received personal support from Mao, and the movement rapidly grew
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Karnātakā
Karnataka
Karnataka
is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore
Bangalore
(Bengaluru). Karnataka
Karnataka
is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west, Goa
Goa
to the northwest, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north, Telangana
Telangana
to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the east, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the southeast, and Kerala
Kerala
to the south
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Tantra
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Abbot
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess.Contents1 Origins 2 Monastic history2.1 Early history 2.2 Later Middle Ages2.2.1 Appointments3 General information 4 Modern practices 5 Abbatial hierarchy 6 Modern abbots not as superior 7 Eastern Christian 8 Honorary and other uses of the title 9 Abbots in art and literature 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksOrigins[edit] The title had its origin in the monasteries of Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, spread through the eastern Mediterranean, and soon became accepted generally in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery. The word is derived from the Aramaic
Aramaic
av meaning "father" or abba, meaning "my father"
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Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa
is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.[2] The main urban area of Lhasa
Lhasa
is roughly equivalent[citation needed] to the administrative borders of Chengguan District,[citation needed] which is part of the wider Lhasa
Lhasa
prefecture-level city, an area formerly administered as a prefecture. Lhasa
Lhasa
is the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
after Xining
Xining
and, at an altitude of 3,490 metres (11,450 ft), Lhasa
Lhasa
is one of the highest cities in the world. The city has been the religious and administrative capital of Tibet
Tibet
since the mid-17th century
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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