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Tarkhan
Tarkhan ( Old Turkic Tarqan;[1] Mongolian: Darqan or Darkhan;[2][3] Persian: ترخان‎; Chinese: 達干; Arabic: طرخان‎; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Turxan, Tarcan, Tárkány, Tarján, Torgyán or Turgan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Turkic peoples, Indo-Europeans (i.e. Iranian, Tokharian, Punjabi), and by the Hungarians
Hungarians
and Mongols. Its use was common among the successors of the Mongol Empire.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 In fiction 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The origin of the word is not known. Various historians identify the word as either East Iranian (Sogdian, or Khotanese Saka),[4][5][6] Turkic,[1][7][8] or Mongolian. Although Richard N. Frye
Richard N

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Ossetian Language
 Russia North Ossetia-Alania Georgia Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia South OssetiaLanguage codesISO 639-1 osISO 639-2 ossISO 639-3 ossGlottolog osse1243[3]Linguasphere 58-ABB-aOssetian text from a book published in 1935. Part of an alphabetic list of proverbs. Latin
Latin
script.This article contains IPA
IPA
phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop
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Harold Walter Bailey
Sir Harold Walter Bailey, FBA (16 December 1899 – 11 January 1996), who published as H. W. Bailey, was an eminent English scholar of Khotanese, Sanskrit, and the comparative study of Iranian languages.Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 Selected publications 4 Honours and awards 5 References 6 Notes 7 External linksLife[edit] Bailey was born in Devizes, Wiltshire, and raised from age 10 onwards on a farm in Nangeenan, Western Australia, without formal education. While growing up, he learned German, Italian, Spanish, Latin, and Greek from household books, and Russian from a neighbour. After he grew interested in the lettering on tea-chests from India, he acquired a book of Bible selections translated into languages with non-European scripts, including Tamil, Arabic, and Japanese. By the time he had left home, he was reading Avestan as well. In 1921 he entered the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
to study classics
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Xiongnu
The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu) were a confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe
Asian Steppe
from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire.[4] After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu
Gansu
and Xinjiang
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Huns
The Huns
Huns
were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they w
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Edwin G. Pulleyblank
Edwin George "Ted" Pulleyblank FRSC (August 7, 1922 – April 13, 2013) was a Canadian sinologist and professor at the University of British Columbia.[1][2] He was known for his studies of the historical phonology of Chinese.Contents1 Life and career 2 Selected works 3 References 4 External linksLife and career[edit] Edwin G. "Ted" Pulleyblank was born on August 7, 1922, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. His father, William George Edwin Pulleyblank, was a teacher of mathematics who later became a school vice-principal, and his mother, Ruth Pulleyblank, had also been a teacher
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Hunnic Language
The Hunnic language, or Hunnish, was the language spoken by Huns
Huns
in the Hunnic Empire, a heterogeneous, multi-ethnic tribal confederation which ruled much of Eastern Europe
Europe
and invaded the West during the 4th and 5th centuries
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Hephthalite Empire
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan
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Proto-Mongols
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-MongolsStatesMongol khanates IX-X Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203 Merkit
Merkit
Khanate XI–XII
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Eurasian Nomads
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast
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Liao Dynasty
The Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
(/ljaʊ/;[3] Khitan: Mos Jælud; simplified Chinese: 辽朝; traditional Chinese: 遼朝; pinyin: Liáo cháo),[4] also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (simplified Chinese: 大辽; traditional Chinese: 大遼; pinyin: Dà Liáo), or the Khitan Empire (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur ),[5], was an empire in East Asia
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Timur
Timur[2] (Persian: تیمور‎ Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir
Amir
Timur
Timur
and Tamerlane[3] (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
in Persia
Persia
and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.[4] According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur's background was Iranized and not steppe nomadic.[5] Born into the Barlas
Barlas
confederation in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(in modern-day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336, Timur
Timur
gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
by 1370
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North China
North China
China
(simplified Chinese: 华北; traditional Chinese: 華北; pinyin: Huáběi; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]The Qinling Huaihe Line
Qinling Huaihe Line
separates China
China
into its Northern and Southern regionsThe heartland of North China
China
is the North China
China
Plain, or the Yellow River Plain
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General Officer
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.[1] The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks
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